Computer-Aided Process Planning and Manufacturing

Computer-Aided Process Planning and Manufacturing

Xun Xu (University of Auckland, NZ)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-714-0.ch003
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Abstract

Products and their components are designed to perform certain functions. Design specifi- cations ensure the functionality aspects. The task in manufacturing is then to produce the components that meet the design specifications. The components are in turn assembled into the final products. When computers are used to assist the process planning and manufacturing activities, multiple benefits can be had. The related technologies are known as computer-aided process planning and computer-aided manufacturing. Often, they are not separable and are therefore discussed in tandem in this chapter. It should be emphasized that process planning is not only for metal-cutting processes. We need process planning for many other manufacturing processes such as casting, forging, sheet metal forming, compositesz and ceramic fabrication. In this chapter, the basic steps of developing a process plan are explained. There are two approaches to carrying out process planning tasks—manual experience-based method and computer-aided process planning method. The focus is on two computer-aided process planning methods, the variant approach, and generative approach. These discussions on process planning have been limited to machining processes. The topic of computer-aided manufacturing, on the other hand, is discussed with a more general point of view. A fictitious CAM plant is presented and some of the key aspects of CAM in a manufacturing system are discussed. A more specific version of CAM (i.e. computer numerical control) will be covered in Chapters VIII and IX.
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Computer-Aided Process Planning

Traditionally, process planning tasks are undertaken by manufacturing process experts. These experts use their experience and knowledge to generate instructions for the manufacture of the products based on the design specifications and the available installations and operators. Different process planner may come up with different plans when facing the same problem, leading to inconsistency in process planning and manufacturing. Consistent and correct planning requires knowledge of manufacturing process and experience (Park 2003, Vidal, Alberti, Ciurana & Casadesus, 2005). This has led to the development of computer-aided process planning and manufacturing systems.

The idea of developing process plans using computers was first conceived in the mid-1960’s. The first CAPP system was developed in 1976 under sponsorship of Computer-Aided Manufacturing International (CAM-I) (Cay & Chassapis, 1997). Since then, there has been a great deal of research carried out in the area, which has been documented in a number of articles (Alting & Zhang, 989, Cay & Chassapis, 1997, Marri, Gunasekaran & Grieve, 1998, Shen, Hao, Yoon & Norrie, 2006, Zhang & Xie, 2007).

Process planning acts as a bridge between design and manufacturing by translating design specifications into manufacturing process details. Therefore, process planning refers to a set of instructions that are used to make a component or a part so that the design specifications are met, or as it is defined by the Society of Manufacturing Engineering (SME) -- “process planning is the systematic determination of the methods by which a product is to be manufactured economically and competitively”. The question is what information is required and what activities are involved in transforming a raw part into a finished component, starting with the selection of raw material and ending with completion of the part. The answer to this question essentially defines the information and set of activities required to develop a process plan.

Complete Chapter List

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Dedication
Table of Contents
Foreword
A.Y.C. Nee
Acknowledgment
Xun Xu
Chapter 1
Xun Xu
One of the key activities in any product design process is to develop a geometric model of the product from the conceptual ideas, which can then be... Sample PDF
Geometric Modelling and Computer-Aided Design
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Chapter 2
Xun Xu
Today, more companies than ever before are involved in manufacturing various parts of their end products using different subcontractors, many of... Sample PDF
CAD Data Exhange and CAD Standards
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Chapter 3
Xun Xu
Products and their components are designed to perform certain functions. Design specifi- cations ensure the functionality aspects. The task in... Sample PDF
Computer-Aided Process Planning and Manufacturing
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Chapter 4
Feature Technology  (pages 75-89)
Xun Xu
Throughout the course of the development of CAD, CAPP, and CAM systems, unambiguous representation of a design’s geometry and topology remain an... Sample PDF
Feature Technology
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Chapter 5
Feature Recognition  (pages 90-108)
Xun Xu
Conventional CAD models only provide pure geometry and topology for mechanical designs such as vertices, edges, faces, simple primitives, and the... Sample PDF
Feature Recognition
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Chapter 6
Feature Interactions  (pages 109-125)
Xun Xu
Feature interaction tends to have a wide range of consequences and effects on a feature model and its applications. While these may often be... Sample PDF
Feature Interactions
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Chapter 7
Xun Xu
Integrated feature technology promotes a closer connection between design and manufacturing through features. When machining features are... Sample PDF
Integrated Feature Technolog
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Chapter 8
CNC Machine Tools  (pages 165-187)
Xun Xu
The introduction of CNC machines has radically changed the manufacturing industry. Curves are as easy to cut as straight lines, complex 3-D... Sample PDF
CNC Machine Tools
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Chapter 9
Program CNCs  (pages 188-229)
Xun Xu
A CNC machine can be programmed in different ways to machine a workpiece. In addition to creating the cutting program, many other factors also need... Sample PDF
Program CNCs
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Chapter 10
Xun Xu
Technologies concerning computer-aided design, process planning, manufacturing and numerical control, have matured to a point that commercialized... Sample PDF
Integration of CAD/CAPP/CAM/CNC
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Chapter 11
Xun Xu
The integration model (Model B) as discussed in the previous chapter makes use of exchangeable neutral data formats such as IGES (1980). Neutral... Sample PDF
Integration Based on STEP Standards
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Chapter 12
Xun Xu
Function blocks are an IEC (International Electro-technical Commission) standard for distributed industrial processes and control systems (IEC... Sample PDF
Function Block-Enabled Integration
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Chapter 13
Xun Xu
In order to prepare manufacturing companies to face increasingly frequent and unpredictable market changes with confidence, there is a recognized... Sample PDF
Development of an Integrated, Adaptable CNC System
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Chapter 14
Xun Xu
A logical step after CNC machining is inspection. With inspections, Closed-Loop Machining (CLM) can be realized to maximize the efficiency of a... Sample PDF
Integrating CAD/CAPP/CAM/CNC with Inspections
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Chapter 15
Xun Xu
Today, companies often have operations distributed around the world, and production facilities and designers are often in different locations.... Sample PDF
Internet-Based Integration
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Chapter 16
Xun Xu
Companies that have been practicing CAD, CAPP, CAM, and CNC integration have now realized that there is a need to operate in a much broader scope... Sample PDF
From CAD/CAPP/CAM/CNC to PDM, PLM and Beyond
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Chapter 17
Key Enabling Technologies  (pages 354-393)
Xun Xu
While computers have proven to be instrumental in the advancement of product design and manufacturing processes, the role that various technologies... Sample PDF
Key Enabling Technologies
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