Concordancing 2.0: On Custom-Made Corpora in the Classroom

Concordancing 2.0: On Custom-Made Corpora in the Classroom

Jaroslaw Krajka (Warsaw School of Social Psychology, Poland)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 21
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-190-2.ch022
OnDemand PDF Download:


This chapter contrasts the use of corpora and concordancing in the Web 1.0 era with the opportunities presented to the language teachers by the Web 2.0 stand-alone concordancing software, which make it much easier to access, compile, and consult the corpora that are more relevant for particular classroom contexts. It is argued here that once trained in the basic corpus consultation procedures with demo interfaces, teachers can exercise their autonomy by using texts available locally and globally to compile custom-made collections. In the chapter the two basic approaches to custom-made concordancing, namely the Web as Corpus and the compilation of ad-hoc collections will be described, together with a summary of sample tools. It is hoped that given careful selection of relevant sources, the learning process will become significantly enhanced thanks to more authentic and relevant language data, promoting teacher autonomy and discovery-based procedures.
Chapter Preview

Background: Opportunities And Drawbacks Of In-Class Corpus Consultation Procedures

There are numerous studies reporting the investigation of the effectiveness of corpus-based procedures in foreign language instruction. These range from the use of small corpora tailored to students’ needs (Aston, 1997) to promoting large corpus concordancing (Bernardini, 2000; de Schryver, 2002); improving writing performance at lower (Yoon & Hirvela, 2004; Gaskell & Cobb, 2004) and advanced levels (Chambers & O’Sullivan, 2004); grammar presentation (Hadley, 2002) and rule inferencing (St. John, 2001). An extensive body of research can be, quite naturally, found in the area of vocabulary acquisition (Cobb, 1997; Cobb, 1998) and teaching foreign language reading, not only assisted by concordancers themselves, but performed in the wider context of a resource-assisted environment, encompassing for instance concordance, dictionary, cloze-builder, hypertext, and a database with the interactive self-quizzing feature (Cobb et al., 2001; Horst et al., 2005). Some studies reported on the relation between the effectiveness of corpus-consultation procedures and strategy training (Kennedy & Miceli, 2001; St. John, 2001; Chambers, 2005), indicating the need to reflect on the conscious and gradual introduction of the tool in the classroom. The perspective that is most relevant for the purposes of the present chapter is represented by the increase of writing proficiency due to learner corpus self-compilation (Lee & Swales, 2006).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Corpus: A collection of linguistic data, either written texts or a transcription of recorded speech, which can be used as a starting-point of linguistic description or as a means of verifying hypotheses about a language.

The Web as Corpus: A movement in computational linguistics, advocating the use of pre-selected or randomly chosen websites or discussion group postings as sources for custom-made corpus collections, usually going with dedicated concordancing solutions.

Corpus Compilation: The process of collecting samples of language according to predefined criteria, such as medium, register, genre, etc., and putting them together either in a single file or a file collection to serve as data for concordance queries.

Custom-Made/Do-It-Yourself/Ad-Hoc Corpus: A collection prepared by a particular teacher/translator to address specific needs of a teaching/translating context, compiled by spotting and retrieving relevant texts either on the Web or locally.

Concordancer: A tool, either an online form or an installable piece of software, enabling formulating queries of different levels of sophistication and browsing a selected or customized corpus for instances of use, producing the KWIC (Key Word In Context) output.

British National Corpus: Sometimes referred to as the BNC, this corpus includes up to 100 million examples of written and spoken language thus presenting an extremely wide representation of British English. The latest edition dates from 2007 and includes extracts from all areas of contemporary British life, from newspapers to periodicals as well as radio and television programmes.

Concordancing: The procedure of browsing a corpus (either ready-made or custom-made) for occurrences of particular words or phrases, used to assist dictionary lookup, observe language use in particular registers or test hypotheses about collocations.

Complete Chapter List

Search this Book:
Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Mark Warschauer
Michael Thomas
Michael Thomas
Chapter 1
Michael Vallance, Kay Vallance, Masahiro Matsui
The grand narrative of educational policy statements lack clear guidelines on Information Communications Technology (ICT) integration. A review of... Sample PDF
Criteria for the Implementation of Learning Technologies
Chapter 2
Mark Pegrum
This chapter discusses the application of a range of Web 2.0 technologies to language education. It argues that Web 2.0 is fundamentally about... Sample PDF
Communicative Networking and Linguistic Mashups on Web 2.0
Chapter 3
Bernd Rüschoff
Current thinking in SLA methodology favours knowledge construction rather than simple instructivist learning as an appropriate paradigm for language... Sample PDF
Output-Oriented Language Learning With Digital Media
Chapter 4
Infoxication 2.0  (pages 60-79)
Elena Benito-Ruiz
This chapter reviews the issue of information overload, introducing the concept of “infoxication 2.0” as one of the main downsides to Web 2.0. The... Sample PDF
Infoxication 2.0
Chapter 5
Margaret Rasulo
The aim of this chapter is to discuss the effectiveness and the necessity of forming a community when engaged in online learning. The Internet and... Sample PDF
The Role of Community Formation in Learning Processes
Chapter 6
Tony Mullen, Christine Appel, Trevor Shanklin
An important aspect of the Web 2.0 phenomenon is the use of Web-embedded and integrated non-browser Internet applications to facilitate... Sample PDF
Skype-Based Tandem Language Learning and Web 2.0
Chapter 7
Gary Motteram, Susan Brown
Web 2.0 offers potentially powerful tools for the field of language education. As language teacher tutors exploring Web 2.0 with participants on an... Sample PDF
A Context-Based Approach to Web 2.0 and Language Education
Chapter 8
Lut Baten, Nicolas Bouckaert, Kan Yingli
This case study describes how a project-based approach offers valuable new opportunities for graduate students to equip them with the necessary... Sample PDF
The Use of Communities in a Virtual Learning Environment
Chapter 9
George R. MacLean, James A. Elwood
Prensky (2001) posited the emergence of a new generation of “digital natives” fluent in the language of cyberspace and familiar with the tools of... Sample PDF
Digital Natives, Learner Perceptions and the Use of ICT
Chapter 10
Steve McCarty
In a cross-cultural educational context of TEFL in Japan, the author sought to enhance the integrative motivation of students toward the target... Sample PDF
Social Networking Behind Student Lines in Japan
Chapter 11
Antonie Alm
This chapter discusses the use of blogs for foreign and second language (L2) learning. It first outlines the suitability of blogs for language... Sample PDF
Blogging for Self-Determination with L2 Learner Journals
Chapter 12
Revathi Viswanathan
Training ESL students in soft skills and employability skills with the help of Web 2.0 technologies is the current trend in Indian educational... Sample PDF
Using Mobile Technology and Podcasts to Teach Soft Skills
Chapter 13
Andy Halvorsen
This chapter looks at the potential use of Social Networking Sites (SNSs) for educators and second language learners. It views SNSs broadly through... Sample PDF
Social Networking Sites and Critical Language Learning
Chapter 14
Nicolas Gromik
This chapter reports on an ongoing project conducted at Tohoku University in Sendai, Japan. A mixed group of seven advanced EFL learners produced... Sample PDF
Producing Cell Phone Video Diaries
Chapter 15
Thomas Raith
This chapter explores in how far Web 2.0, Weblogs in particular, has changed foreign language learning. It argues that Weblogs, along with Web 2.0... Sample PDF
The Use of Weblogs in Language Education
Chapter 16
Nat Carney
This chapter gives a comprehensive overview of blogs in Foreign Language Education (FLE) through reviewing literature, critically analyzing... Sample PDF
Blogging in Foreign Language Education
Chapter 17
Pete Travis, Fiona Joseph
In particular, this chapter looks at the potential role of Web 2.0 technologies and podcasting to act as a transformational force within language... Sample PDF
Improving Learners' Speaking Skills with Podcasts
Chapter 18
Volker Hegelheimer, Anne O’Bryan
The increasing availability of mobile technologies is allowing users to interact seamlessly with a variety of content anytime, anywhere. One of... Sample PDF
Mobile Technologies, Podcasting and Language Education
Chapter 19
Jenny Ang Lu
This chapter aims to investigate how podcasts can be made to fit into the repertoire of resources utilized by teachers, especially in language... Sample PDF
Podcasting as a Next Generation Teaching Resource
Chapter 20
Matthias Sturm, Trudy Kennell, Rob McBride, Mike Kelly
Web 2.0 tools like blogs, Wikis, and podcasts are new to the vocabulary of language acquisition. Teachers and students who take full advantage of... Sample PDF
The Pedagogical Implications of Web 2.0
Chapter 21
John Paul Loucky
This study describes a task-based assessment (TBA) approach to teaching reading and writing online. It then analyzes key factors emerging from the... Sample PDF
Improving Online Readability in a Web 2.0 Context
Chapter 22
Jaroslaw Krajka
This chapter contrasts the use of corpora and concordancing in the Web 1.0 era with the opportunities presented to the language teachers by the Web... Sample PDF
Concordancing 2.0: On Custom-Made Corpora in the Classroom
Chapter 23
Darren Elliott
This chapter looks at the ways in which teacher training and teacher development are taking place online. It seeks to address the ways in which... Sample PDF
Internet Technologies and Language Teacher Education
Chapter 24
Sarah Guth
This chapter discusses the potential of social software and Web 2.0 tools to enhance language learning in a blended learning context. It describes... Sample PDF
Personal Learning Environments for Language Learning
Chapter 25
Shudong Wang, Neil Heffernan
This chapter introduces the concept of Mobile 2.0, a mobile version of Web 2.0, and its application to language learning. The chapter addresses the... Sample PDF
Mobile 2.0 and Mobile Language Learning
Chapter 26
Euline Cutrim Schmid
The first part of this chapter discusses the transformative potential of Interactive Whiteboards (IWBs), by analyzing the opportunities of using... Sample PDF
The Pedagogical Potential of Interactive Whiteboards 2.0
Chapter 27
David Miller, Derek Glover
This chapter summarizes the work underway to chart, critically evaluate, and systematize the introduction of interactive whiteboards (IWB) into... Sample PDF
Interactive Whiteboards in the Web 2.0 Classroom
Chapter 28
Samuel Holtzman
The process of technological inclusion begins with an analysis of the features and functions of the specific tool in consideration. Pedagogy should... Sample PDF
Web 2.0 and CMS for Second Language Learning
About the Contributors