Video streaming poses significant technical challenges in quality of service guarantee and efficient resource management. Generally, it is recognized that end-to-end quality requirements of video streaming application can be reasonably achieved only by integrative study of advanced networking and content processing techniques. However, most existing integration techniques stop at the bit stream level, ignoring a deeper understanding of the media content. Yet, the underlying visual content of the video stream contains a vast amount of information that can be used to predict the bit-rate or quality more accurately. In the content-aware video streaming framework, video content is extracted automatically and used to control video quality under various manipulations and network resource requirements.