Cooperation Strategies for P2P Content Distribution in Cellular Mobile Networks: Considering Selfishness and Heterogeneity

Cooperation Strategies for P2P Content Distribution in Cellular Mobile Networks: Considering Selfishness and Heterogeneity

Tobias Hoßfeld (University of Würzburg, Germany), Daniel Schlosser (University of Würzburg, Germany), Kurt Tutschku (University of Vienna, Austria) and Phuoc Tran-Gia (University of Würzburg, Germany)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-715-7.ch007
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Abstract

The performance of P2P content distribution in cellular networks depends highly on the cooperation and coordination of heterogeneous and often selfish mobile users. The major challenges are the identification of problems specifically arising in cellular mobile networks and the development of new cooperation strategies to overcome these problems. In this chapter, the authors review common cooperation strategies using multi-source downloads. They demonstrate the fundamental “last chunk” problem of typical strategies as used by eDonkey or BitTorrent. This is caused by the selfishness of users; however, an ordered chunk delivery evades this problem. In the coherent subsequent chapter “Cooperation Strategies for P2P Content Distribution in Cellular Mobile Networks: Considering Mobility and Heterogeneity”, the impact of mobility and vertical handover between heterogeneous wireless access technologies is investigated.
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Introduction

P2P file sharing systems contribute to the majority of traffic volume that is currently being transported in the Internet. Applications like eDonkey or BitTorrent are used to share large volume content and alleviate the problem of overloaded servers by distributing the load among all sharing peers, which makes P2P systems highly scalable and resilient content distribution systems. The performance of such P2P content distribution networks (CDN) in cellular networks depends highly on the coordination of heterogeneous and often selfish mobile users. Sophisticated cooperation strategies, such as the multi-source download and tit-for-tat principle, are the foundation of the extreme efficiency of P2P content distribution networks. Multi-source download means the simultaneous download of parts of a file, referred to as chunk, from several sources in parallel. The cooperation strategies applied in popular P2P CDN platforms such as eDonkey or BitTorrent, rely on the fundamental P2P assumption that all peers are equal. In cellular networks, however, the peers differ significantly in their characteristics, e.g. their access system and bandwidth which might change over time or their on-line behavior, thus introducing heterogeneity and even selfishness in the peer community. Hence, the P2P assumption of equal peers is not valid any more. In addition, the dynamics and heterogeneity in cellular mobile networks is further increased by the mobility of users.

Although most P2P CDNs utilize the benefits of multi-source downloads, the various platforms differ significantly in the actual implementation of the cooperation algorithms. In particular, the peer selection as well as the chunk selection mechanisms lead to different system behaviors and performance results. The detailed performance of the strategies is further determined by the actual peer characteristics and the peer behavior. The peer characteristic includes, among others the available upload and download bandwidth, as well as the number of parallel upload and download connections. The mobility of a user makes these peer characteristics change over time. Thus, the performance depends considerably on the heterogeneity. The peer behavior is mainly described by churn, i.e. the switching of a user between offline and online state, and by the willingness of a user to participate in the CDN. A user may behave selfishly and tries to minimize the upload of data or he may redistribute the data in an altruistic way. In the context of cellular mobile networks, churn and selfish behavior appear even more distinctive, e.g. to save battery resources or scarce and expensive uplink capacities. As a result, the so-called “last chunk” problem might arise which inhibits the data dissemination process and makes individual chunks starve in the network.

Additional challenges and influence factors on the performance of the system arise in a heterogeneous, wireless cellular network. Due to the user mobility, vertical handovers (VHO) between the different wireless access technologies are required which may result in transmission delays and IP address changes of the switching peer. Mechanisms like Mobile IP allow overcoming IP address changes, nevertheless such mechanisms also introduce additional delays. Another important phenomenon occurring with vertical handovers is the abrupt change of available bandwidth, e.g., from a fast WLAN connection to a rather slow UMTS connection. This will be discussed in more detail in the coherent following chapter “Cooperation Strategies for P2P Content Distribution in Cellular Mobile Networks: Considering Mobility and Heterogeneity”.

There are several possibilities to improve the performance of content distribution in cellular networks. Those are: a) particular architecture concepts introducing special entities like caches for storing contents or crawlers for locating sources, e.g. (Oberender et al., 2005); b) the optimization of parameters, like the size of chunks, as done by Hoßfeld, Tutschku & Schlosser, 2005); c) incentives to motivate the users to share files and to contribute to the system; and d) cooperation strategies for the coordination among peers. From these possibilities, we will focus on the cooperation strategies in this chapter. The goal is: i) to describe how to model a P2P content distribution system with multi-source download in a cellular wireless environment; ii) to identify the fundamental problems of typical cooperation strategies; iii) to investigate the impact of user behavior and heterogeneity, in particular selfishness; and iv) to propose solutions to overcome the derived problems.

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Table of Contents
Acknowledgment
Boon-Chong Seet
Chapter 1
Raphaël Kummer, Peter Kropf, Pascal Felber
The most important characteristics of mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) such as broadcast and multihop communication, limited resources (particularly... Sample PDF
P2P Information Lookup, Collection, and Distribution in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks
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Chapter 2
Thomas Repantis, Vana Kalogeraki
In this chapter the authors study the problems of data dissemination and query routing in mobile peerto- peer networks. They provide a taxonomy and... Sample PDF
Data Dissemination and Query Routing in Mobile Peer-to-Peer Networks
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Chapter 3
Jie Feng, Lisong Xu, Byrav Ramamurthy
With the evolution of wireless technologies, mobile networks can provide much more interesting services and resources to users than before.... Sample PDF
Overlay Construction in Mobile Peer-to-Peer Networks
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Chapter 4
Thomas Kunz, Abdulbaset Gaddah, Li Li
Peer-to-Peer computing is a popular, relatively new, distributed computing paradigm. It allows for a flexible set of participants to coordinate... Sample PDF
Mobility Support in a P2P System for Publish/Subscribe Applications
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Chapter 5
Leonardo B. Oliveira, Isabela G. Siqueira, Daniel F. Macedo, José M. Nogueira, Antonio A.F. Loureiro
Both Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) and Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks are decentralized self-organizing networks with a dynamic topology, used to... Sample PDF
P2P over MANETs: Application and Network Layers' Routing Assessment
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Chapter 6
Fotis Loukos, Helen Karatza
Mobile Peer-to-Peer networks are an emerging topic in networking. One of the major usages is the cooperation between peers. The aim of this chapter... Sample PDF
Enabling Cooperation in MANET-Based Peer-to-Peer Systems
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Chapter 7
Tobias Hoßfeld, Daniel Schlosser, Kurt Tutschku, Phuoc Tran-Gia
The performance of P2P content distribution in cellular networks depends highly on the cooperation and coordination of heterogeneous and often... Sample PDF
Cooperation Strategies for P2P Content Distribution in Cellular Mobile Networks: Considering Selfishness and Heterogeneity
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Chapter 8
Tobias Hoßfeld, Michael Duelli, Dirk Staehle, Phuoc Tran-Gia
The performance of P2P content distribution in cellular networks depends highly on the cooperation and coordination of heterogeneous and often... Sample PDF
Cooperation Strategies for P2P Content Distribution in Cellular Mobile Networks: Considering Mobility and Heterogeneity
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Chapter 9
Wei Wu, Kian-Lee Tan
Caching and prefetching are two effective ways for mobile peers to improve access latency in mobile environments. With short-range communication... Sample PDF
Peer-Based Collaborative Caching and Prefetching in Mobile Broadcast
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Chapter 10
Mark Kai-Ho Yeung, Yu-Kwong Kwok
The widespread deployment of competing wireless technologies has created new research opportunities. In particular, the authors consider media... Sample PDF
Wireless Peer-to-Peer Media Streaming: Incentives and Resource Management Issues
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Chapter 11
Panayotis Antoniadis
The goal of this chapter is to analyze the incentive issues that arise in multi-hop ad hoc networks when their nodes are potentially mobile devices... Sample PDF
Incentives for Resource Sharing in Ad Hoc Networks: Going Beyond Rationality
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Chapter 12
Johann van der Merwe, Dawoud Dawoud
Group communication in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) generally occurs in the form of dynamic peer groups (DPGs). This chapter reviews the existing... Sample PDF
Key Management for Dynamic Peer Groups in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
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Chapter 13
James Walkerdine, Peter Phillips, Simon Lock
The growth of mobile devices with near PC equivalent capabilities has brought with it the possibility of mobile Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems. However... Sample PDF
A Tool Supported Methodology for Developing Secure Mobile P2P Systems
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Chapter 14
Spyridon L. Tompros
Enabled by the emergence of high-speed Internet access in last mile communications, P2P systems have witnessed significant growth in the recent... Sample PDF
Integration and Interworking of Fixed and Mobile P2P Systems
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Chapter 15
Erkki Harjula, Jani Hautakorpi, Nicklas Beijar, Mika Ylianttila
Due to the increasing popularity of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) computing, the information technology industry and standardization organizations have started... Sample PDF
Peer-to-Peer SIP for Mobile Computing: Challenges and Solutions
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Chapter 16
Kurt Tutschku, Andreas Berl, Tobias Hossfeld, Hermann de Meer
The telecommunication industry has recently seen two areas with very high growth rates: cellular networks, for example, GSM (Global System for... Sample PDF
Mobile P2P in Cellular Mobile Networks: Architecture and Performance
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Chapter 17
Norihiro Ishikawa, Hiromitsu Sumino, Takeshi Kato, Johan Hjelm, Shingo Murakami, Kazuhiro Kitagawa, Nobuo Saito
Compared with traditional Internet technologies, peer-to-peer technologies has functions to realize resource discovery, resource sharing, and load... Sample PDF
Peer-to-Peer Networking Platform and Its Applications for Mobile Phones
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Chapter 18
Raphaël Kummer, Peter Kropf, Jean-Frédéric Wagen, Timothée Maret
Many innovative P2P algorithms designed for mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) have been designed to scale smoothly when handling a very large number... Sample PDF
Evaluation Platform for Large Scale P2P Mobile Ad-hoc Networks
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Chapter 19
Alf Inge Wang
This chapter presents the Peer2Me mobile peer-to-peer framework, Peer2Me applications, and discusses the experiences from using the Peer2Me... Sample PDF
Mobile Peer-to-Peer Collaborative Framework and Applications
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Chapter 20
Antônio Tadeu A. Gomes, Artur Ziviani, Luciana S. Lima, Markus Endler
This chapter surveys the approaches to service discovery that are relevant to mobile peer-to-peer systems in a variety of scenarios. More... Sample PDF
Service Discovery Approaches to Mobile Peer-to-Peer Computing
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Chapter 21
Marco Conti, Franca Delmastro, Andrea Passarella
Recently, the popularity of p2p computing paradigm has been increasing, especially in the mobile environments, due to the large use of mobile... Sample PDF
Context-Aware P2P Over Opportunistic Networks
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About the Contributors