Copyright Protection of A/V Codec for Mobile Multimedia Devices

Copyright Protection of A/V Codec for Mobile Multimedia Devices

Goo-Rak Kwon (Chosun University, Korea) and Sung-Jea Ko (Korea University, Korea)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 14
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-262-6.ch022
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The objective of this chapter introduces an advanced encryption of MP3 and MPEG-4 coder with a quality degradation-based security model. For the MP3 audio, the magnitude, and phase information of modified discrete cosine transform (MDCT) coefficients is encrypted. DCT coefficients and motion vectors (MVs) are used for the scrambling of the MPEG-4 video. This encryption scheme has a level of security, secures in perception, keeps format compliance, and obtains high time efficiency though reducing the encrypted the volumes of multimedia contents. These properties make it practical to incorporate encryption and decryption process into compression and decompression process, and thus suitable for secure A/V transmission or sharing.
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With the advance of multimedia technology, multimedia sharing among multiple devices has become the main issue. This allows users to expect the peer-to-peer distribution of unprotected and protected contents over public network. Many audio and video (A/V) processing software including DVD players, CD rippers, MP3 encoders, and A/V players have been posted for free on the Web allowing users to build their own A/V record collections from their own CD and DVD. Inevitably, this situation has caused an incredible piracy activity and some Web sites have begun to provide copyrighted A/V data for free. In order to protect the contents from illegal attacks, digital rights management (DRM) is required as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1.

Application of DRM technique

The DRM system generally provides two essential functions: management of digital rights by identifying, describing, and setting the rules of the content usage, and digital management of right by securing the contents and enforcing usage rules. The basic principle of the DRM model (Schneier, 1996; Piva, 2002; Petitcloas, 1999) is to separate and identify three core entities: Users, Content, and Rights. Users can be any type of users from a rights holder to an end-consumer. Content is any type of contents at any level of aggregation. A right is an expression of permissions, constraints, and obligations between Users and Content. This model provides the greatest flexibility when assigning rights to any combination or layering of Users and Content. Figure 2 shows the example of contents distribution service using DRM. In Figure 2, a user A requests image, audio, or video in the network and goes through payment. Billing system informs payment approval, and then CP delivers encrypted contents to only an authorized user through the network.

Figure 2.

Example of the contents distribution service using DRM

Various encryption techniques for DRM have been researched. These techniques are classified into two approaches: scrambling and watermarking. Scrambling that is generally based on old and proven cryptographic tools, efficiently ensures confidentiality, authenticity, and integrity of messages. However, it does not protect against unauthorized copying after the message has been successfully transmitted and descrambled (Matsunaga, et al., 1989; Schneier, 1996; Spanos, et al., 1995). This kind of protection can be handled by watermarking (Piva, 2002; Aeng, 2003), which is a more recent topic that has attracted a large amount of research and is perceived as a complementary aid in encryption. A digital watermark is a piece of information inserted and hidden in the media content (Bassia, 2001; Borujeni, 2000; Cox, 2000; Li, et al., 2004; Neubauer, et al., 1998; Yeh & Kuo, 1999). This information is imperceptible to a human observer but can be easily detected by a computer. Moreover, the main advantage of this technique is to provide the nonseparability of the hidden information and the content.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Joint Encryption: This technology is the joint of each encryption which is independently the difference process for encryption. It has ability that is a level of security against accessing the unauthorized device or users.

A/V Scrambling: This technology and contents scrambling system are the same. The purpose of contents scrambling system is twofold. First and foremost, it prevents byte-for-byte copies of an MPEG stream from being playable since such copies will not include the keys that are hidden on the lead-in area of the protected DVD disk. Second, it provides a reason for manufacturers to make compliant devices, since contents scrambling system scrambled disks will not play on noncompliant devices. Anyone wishing to build compliant devices must obtain a license, which contains the requirement that the rest of the copy-protection system be implemented

A/V Encryption: This algorithm can be used as one of access content system. The access content system (ACS) is a standard for content distribution and digital rights management, intended to restrict access to and copying of the next generation of optical discs and DVDs. The specification was publicly released in Apr. 2005 and the standard has been adopted as the access restriction scheme for HD DVD and Blu-ray Disc (BD).

Copyright Protection: The mechanisms that prevent data, usually digital data, from being copied. The term “copyright protection” is occasionally seen in this usage, but is an error; copy protection is the usual term. Permission is not granted to use these images, which are protected by copyright.

Partial Encryption: It is similar to the joint encryption. However, this technology is how to degree the robustness of the encryption. And it provides some information of unauthorized consumer in advertizing the contents.

Authorized Device: The technology may be a physical device that an authorized user of computer services is given to aid in authentication. An authorization is the concept of allowing access to resources only to those permitted to use them. More formally, authorization is a process (often part of the operating system) that protects computer resources by only allowing those resources to be used by resource consumers that have been granted authority to use them. Resources include individual files’ or items’ data, computer programs, computer devices and functionality provided by computer applications.

Watermarking and Scrambling: A watermarking system consists of an embedding algorithm and a detecting function. And scrambling is generally based on old and proven cryptographic tools, efficiently ensures confidentiality, authenticity, and integrity of messages. This mechanism is the combination ones.

Complete Chapter List

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Borko Furht
Shiguo Lian, Yan Zhang
Shiguo Lian, Yan Zhang
Chapter 1
Pramod A. Jamkhedkar, Gregory L. Heileman
Rights expression languages (RELs) form a central component of digital rights management (DRM) systems. The process of development of RELs... Sample PDF
Rights Expression Languages
Chapter 2
Deepali Brahmbhatt, Mark Stamp
This chapter presents a digital rights management (DRM) system designed for streaming media. A brief, general introduction to DRM is also provided... Sample PDF
Digital Rights Management for Streaming Media
Chapter 3
Jean-Henry Morin
This chapter introduces and discusses much needed alternatives to the traditional either/or debate on total security of secure multimedia... Sample PDF
Rethinking DRM Using Exception Management
Chapter 4
Mercè Serra Joan, Bert Greevenbosch, Anja Becker, Harald Fuchs
This chapter gives an overview of the Open Mobile AllianceTM Digital Rights Management (OMA DRM) standard, which allows for the secure distribution... Sample PDF
Overview of OMA Digital Rights Management
Chapter 5
Hugo Jonker, Sjouke Mauw
The use of Digital Rights Management (DRM) systems involves several stakeholders, such as the content provider, the license provider, and the user... Sample PDF
Discovering the Core Security Requirements of DRM Systems by Means of Objective Trees
Chapter 6
Pallavi Priyadarshini, Mark Stamp
Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks have proliferated and become ubiquitous. A school of thought has emerged that harnessing the established user-base and... Sample PDF
Digital Rights Management for Untrusted Peer-to-Peer Networks
Chapter 7
L. Badia, A. Erta, U. Malesci
Traditional analog video surveillance systems technology has recently become inadequate to face the massive demand of security systems consisting of... Sample PDF
Pervasive Video Surveillance Systems Over TCP/IP Networks
Chapter 8
Ramya Venkataramu, Mark Stamp
Digital Rights Management (DRM) technology is used to control access to copyrighted digital content. Apple employs a DRM system known as Fairplay in... Sample PDF
P2PTunes: A Peer-to-Peer Digital Rights Management System
Chapter 9
Nicolas Anciaux, Luc Bouganim, Philippe Pucheral
This chapter advocates the convergence between Access Control (AC) models, focusing on the granularity of sharing, and Digital Right Management... Sample PDF
A Hardware Approach for Trusted Access and Usage Control
Chapter 10
Ionut Florescu
Regarding fundamental protocols in cryptography, the Diffie-Hellman (Diffie and Hellman, 1976) public key exchange protocol is one of the oldest and... Sample PDF
A Summary of Recent and Old Results on the Security of the Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange Protocol in Finite Groups
Chapter 11
Guojun Wang, Yirong Wu, Geyong Min, Ronghua Shi
Secret sharing aims at distributing and sharing a secret among a group of participants efficiently. In this chapter, we propose a plane-based access... Sample PDF
Secret Sharing with k-Dimensional Access Structure
Chapter 12
Supavadee Aramvith, Rhandley D. Cajote
Presently, both wireless communications and multimedia communications have experienced unequaled rapid growth and commercial success. Building on... Sample PDF
Wireless Video Transmission
Chapter 13
M. Hassan Shirali-Shahreza, Mohammad Shirali-Shahreza
Establishing hidden communication is an important subject of discussion that has gained increasing importance recently, particularly with the... Sample PDF
A Survey of Information Hiding
Chapter 14
Fan Zhang
The digital multimedia, including text, image, graphics, audio, video, and so forth, has become a main way for information communication along with... Sample PDF
Digital Watermarking Capacity and Detection Error Rate
Chapter 15
Digital Watermarking  (pages 277-297)
Aidan Mooney
As Internet usage continues to grow, people are becoming more aware of the need to protect the display and presentation of digital documents.... Sample PDF
Digital Watermarking
Chapter 16
Pradeep K. Atrey, Abdulmotaleb El Saddik, Mohan Kankanhalli
Digital video authentication has been a topic of immense interest to researchers in the past few years. Authentication of a digital video refers to... Sample PDF
Digital Video Authentication
Chapter 17
Tieyan Li
The multimedia community is moving from monolithic applications to more flexible and scalable proliferate solutions. Security issues such as access... Sample PDF
Flexible Multimedia Stream Authentication
Chapter 18
K-G Stenborg
Media that is distributed digitally can be copied and redistributed illegally. Embedding an individual watermark in the media object for each... Sample PDF
Scalable Distribution of Watermarked Media
Chapter 19
Hafiz Malik
This chapter provides critical analysis of current state-of-the-art in steganography. First part of the this chapter provides the classification of... Sample PDF
Critical Analysis of Digital Steganography
Chapter 20
Esther Palomar, Juan M.E. Tapiador, Julio C. Hernandez-Castro, Arturo Ribagorda
Perhaps the most popular feature offered by Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks is the possibility of having several replicas of the same content... Sample PDF
Secure Content Distribution in Pure P2P
Chapter 21
Andreas U. Schmidt, Nicolai Kuntze
Security in the value creation chain hinges on many single components and their interrelations. Trusted Platforms open ways to fulfil the pertinent... Sample PDF
Trust in the Value-Creation Chain of Multimedia Goods
Chapter 22
Goo-Rak Kwon, Sung-Jea Ko
The objective of this chapter introduces an advanced encryption of MP3 and MPEG-4 coder with a quality degradation-based security model. For the MP3... Sample PDF
Copyright Protection of A/V Codec for Mobile Multimedia Devices
Chapter 23
Frank Y. Shih, Yi-Ta Wu
Steganography is the art of hiding secret data inside other innocent media file. Steganalysis is the process of detecting hidden data which are... Sample PDF
Digital Steganography Based on Genetic Algorithm
Chapter 24
Guangjie Liu, Shiguo Lian, Yuewei Dai, Zhiquan Wang
Image steganography is a common form of information hiding which embeds as many message bits into images and keep the introduced distortion... Sample PDF
Adaptive Image Steganography Based on Structural Similarity Metric
Chapter 25
Shiguo Lian
Video watermarking technique embeds some information into videos by modifying video content slightly. The embedded information, named watermark, may... Sample PDF
A Survey on Video Watermarking
Chapter 26
Minglei Liu, Ce Zhu
Digital watermarking is a useful and powerful tool for multimedia security such as copyright protection, tamper proofing and assessment, broadcast... Sample PDF
Multiple Description Coding with Application in Multimedia Watermarking
Chapter 27
Hsuan T. Chang, Chih-Chung Hsu
This chapter introduces a pioneer concept in which multiple images are simultaneously considered in the compression and secured distribution... Sample PDF
Fractal-Based Secured Multiple-Image Compression and Distribution
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