Whereas the literature indicates critical success factors (CSF) for IS implementation success, it is the thesis of this chapter that in situations involving government policy and business environments that are radically different from the West, there exist different and context-specific CSF; the focus of this chapter is on Chinese businesses. This chapter presents a multiple-case study, guided by a multi-stage perspective, consisting of eight computer applications in four representative companies; for each company, two applications—finance and manufacturing requirements planning (MRP)—were studied. Findings suggest 10 factors shown critical for IS implementation success in the Chinese organizations. We highlight and discuss five novel factors especially relevant to the Chinese context. This exploratory work initiates a call for more in-depth investigations incorporating the dimensions of differing government policy and business environments for future research in this area. The findings also offer practitioners a set of guidelines in implementing IS applications in China.