The Criticality of Transformational Leadership to Advancing United States Government Enterprise Architecture Adoption

The Criticality of Transformational Leadership to Advancing United States Government Enterprise Architecture Adoption

William S. Boddie (National Defense University, USA)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 19
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-068-4.ch006
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Abstract

An effective enterprise architecture (EA) capability enables an organization to develop sound enterprise plans, make informed human, materiel, and technology resource investment and management decisions, and optimize key business processes. Despite U.S. Congressional legislation, U.S. Office of Management and Budget guidance, and U.S. Government Accountability Office reports and recommendations, many U.S. government leaders struggle in advancing EA adoption in their organizations. U.S. Government leaders must embrace transformational leadership to advance EA adoption. The author presents the Vision, Integrity, Communication, Inspiration, and Empowerment Transformational Leadership Model that describes competencies U.S. Government leaders need to advance EA adoption. The author also presents the Transformational Leadership and Enterprise Management Integration Framework that describes the relationship between transformational leadership and enterprise management functions. U.S. Government leaders must adopt this framework to realize improved enterprise performance.
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Introduction

Many U.S. government organizations struggle in implementing effective enterprise architecture (EA) capabilities. Despite Congressional legislation, U.S. Office of Management and Budget guidance, and U.S. Government Accountability Office recommendations, many U.S. government leaders struggle in advancing EA adoption in their organizations. The U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) (2001) concluded that an EA is critical to modernizing enterprise business processes, information technology (IT), and improving enterprise performance effectiveness. The GAO (2004) found EA was critical to improving organizational performance in the private and public sectors. The U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) (2006) stated “Architecture is a management practice to maximize the contribution of an agency’s resources to achieve its mission. Architecture can establish a clear line of sight from investments to measurable performance improvements whether for the entire enterprise or a portion (or segment) of the enterprise” (p. 1 – 2).

An EA describes an organization’s current capabilities and constraints, the organization’s desired capabilities, and the organization’s plans to transition from the current to the desired capabilities. Enterprise architectures provide “to people at all organizational levels an explicit, common, and meaningful structural frame of reference that allows an understanding of (1) what the enterprise does; (2) when, where, how, and why it does it; and (3) what it uses to do it” (GAO, 2003, p. i). An effective EA enables organizations to develop sound enterprise plans, make informed human, material, and technology resource investment and management decisions, and optimize key enterprise business processes. “Enterprise architectures are essential for organizations to effectively and efficiently develop new and evolve existing information systems” (GAO, 2000, p. 4). The GAO also found, “If defined properly, enterprise architectures can assist in optimizing the interdependencies and interrelationships among organizations’ business operations and the underlying information technology supporting these operations” (GAO, 2000, p. 4). An effective EA capability can enable government organizations to realize improved performance.

Advancing an effective EA capability requires organizational leaders to adopt an enterprise perspective rather than focusing exclusively on sub-enterprise activities. The GAO (2004) “repeatedly identified the lack of an enterprise architecture as a key management weakness in major modernization programs at a number of federal agencies” (p. 1). Many government organizational leaders struggle to embrace an enterprise perspective and consequently miss significant opportunities to improve their organization’s performance. Additionally, many government leaders lack the necessary leadership competencies to advance EA adoption. Kotter (1995) reported, “A paralyzed senior management often comes from having too many managers and not enough leaders” (p. 60). Kotter found “Change, by definition, requires a new system, which in turn, always requires leadership” (p. 60). Government organizations need strong leaders to advance EA adoption. The U.S. Government Accountability Office (2006) stated, “The key to these [U.S. government] departments and agencies building upon their current status, and ultimately realizing the benefits that they cited architectures providing, is sustained executive leadership, as virtually all the challenges that they reported can be addressed by such leadership” (p. 1). Transformational leadership is critical to government leaders advancing EA adoption and improving their organization’s performance.

The objectives of this chapter are to review U.S. government efforts to advance EA capabilities, define the current EA state in U.S. government organizations, emphasize the criticality of transformational leadership to advancing government-wide EA adoption, situate the relationships between transformational leadership and enterprise management functions, and highlight the outcomes the U.S. Department of Labor realized from its adoption of transformational leadership, EA, and enterprise management.

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List of Reviewers
Table of Contents
Foreword
John A. Zachman
Preface
Pallab Saha
Acknowledgment
Pallab Saha
Chapter 1
Pallab Saha
Countries across the world are pushing their frontiers in governance in the move to information economy, and governments play a pivotal role in this... Sample PDF
A Methodology for Government Transformation with Enterprise Architecture
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Chapter 2
Marc M. Lankhorst, Guido I.H.M. Bayens
This chapter describes the development and future directions of a service-oriented reference architecture for the Dutch government. For several... Sample PDF
A Service-Oriented Reference Architecture for E-Government
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Chapter 3
Amit Bhagwat
This chapter introduces the concept of Beacon Architecture as a formalized and ordered grouping of architectural elements, describing the... Sample PDF
Role of Beacon Architecture in Mitigating Enterprise Architecture Challenges of the Public Sector
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Chapter 4
Hong Sik Kim, Sungwook Moon
Quite a good amount of time has been spent seeking appropriate solutions to handle the giant information technology expenditure not only in... Sample PDF
Maturity Model Based on Quality Concept of Enterprise Information Architecture (EIA)
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Chapter 5
Alan Dyer
Enterprise Architecture is the organising logic for business processes and Information Technology infrastructure, the purpose of which is to create... Sample PDF
Measuring the Benefits of Enterprise Architecture: Knowledge Management Maturity
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Chapter 6
William S. Boddie
An effective enterprise architecture (EA) capability enables an organization to develop sound enterprise plans, make informed human, materiel, and... Sample PDF
The Criticality of Transformational Leadership to Advancing United States Government Enterprise Architecture Adoption
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Chapter 7
Jay Ramanathan
Public institutions that are organized in hierarchies find it difficult to address crisis or other unique requirements that demand networked... Sample PDF
Adaptive IT Architecture as a Catalyst for Network Capability in Government
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Chapter 8
Chris Aitken
This chapter describes a design integrity framework for developing models of any entity of interest at various levels of abstraction. The design... Sample PDF
Design Integrity and Enterprise Architecture Governance
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Chapter 9
Dwight V. Toavs
Few government executives can explain the enterprise architecture of his or her agency, and it is rare to find a political executive who is able to... Sample PDF
Policy Mapping: Relating Enterprise Architecture to Policy Goals
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Chapter 10
Klaus D. Niemann
A comprehensive enterprise architecture management has strategic and operative aspects. Strategic tasks cover the identification of appropriate... Sample PDF
Enterprise Architecture Management and its Role in IT Governance and IT Investment Planning
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Chapter 11
Vassilios Peristeras, Konstantinos Tarabanis
Departing from the lack of coherent and ready-to-use models and domain descriptions for public administration, we present here our effort to build a... Sample PDF
The GEA: Governance Enterprise Architecture-Framework and Models
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Chapter 12
Bram Klievink, Wijnand Derks, Marijn Janssen
The ambition of the Dutch government is to create a demand-driven government by means of effective use of information and communication technology.... Sample PDF
Enterprise Architecture and Governance Challenges for Orchestrating Public-Private Cooperation
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Chapter 13
Neil Fairhead, John Good
This chapter provides an approach to Enterprise Architecture that is people-led, as a contrast to being led by technology or modelling methodology.... Sample PDF
People-Led Enterprise Architecture
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Chapter 14
Timothy Biggert
This chapter provides a case study on how the U.S. Office of Personnel Management has led the establishment of the Human Resources Line of Business... Sample PDF
Using Enterprise Architecture to Transform Service Delivery: The U.S. Federal Government's Human Resources Line of Business
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Chapter 15
Scott Bernard, Shuyuan Mary Ho
Government agencies are committing an increasing amount of resources to information security and data privacy solutions in order to meet legal and... Sample PDF
Enterprise Architecture as Context and Method for Designing and Implementing Information Security and Data Privacy Controls in Government Agencies
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Chapter 16
John Mo, Laszlo Nemes
With a plethora of architectures, modelling techniques and methodologies on offer, it is difficult to decide how to begin building an enterprise and... Sample PDF
Architecture Based Engineering of Enterprises with Government Involvement
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Chapter 17
Leonidas G. Anthopoulos
E-government evolves according to strategic plans with the coordination of central Governments. This top-down procedure succeeds in slow but... Sample PDF
Collaborative Enterprise Architecture for Municipal Environments
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Chapter 18
Nigel Martin
This chapter describes the development and use of government enterprise architectures for the framing and alignment of the core business processes... Sample PDF
Government Enterprise Architectures: Enabling the Alignment of Business Processes and Information Systems
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About the Contributors