Cross-Layer Resource Allocation and Scheduling for Wireless Systems

Cross-Layer Resource Allocation and Scheduling for Wireless Systems

Dimitris Toumpakaris (University of Patras, Greece) and Jungwon Lee (Marvell Semiconductor Inc., USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-108-7.ch002
OnDemand PDF Download:
$37.50

Abstract

This chapter presents an introduction to cross-layer scheduling and resource allocation for wireless systems and an overview of some of the approaches and proposed algorithms. The use of scheduling is motivated by first considering the fading Gaussian channel. Then, the focus shifts to scheduling and resource allocation for cellular systems. Existing approaches for the uplink and the downlink are discussed, as well as research results relating to the fading Multiple Access and the fading Broadcast Channel. Schemes for OFDMA and CDMA systems as well as systems using multiple antenna transmission are also presented. It is hoped that this survey will affirm the improvement in performance that can be achieved by use of cross-layer approaches in the design of Next-Generation Networks.
Chapter Preview
Top

Introduction

Next-Generation Networks will be expected to deliver high data rates to a large number of different users in diverse environments. Moreover, they should be able to accommodate different user needs in terms of Quality of Service (QoS) and, in the same time, guarantee fairness. As the networks expand, energy efficiency will also be required, especially for wireless systems where battery life and radiation levels are major concerns. In order to meet successfully these demands, improved and new system designs are being developed. The designs encompass all system aspects, from smaller, faster and more energy-efficient circuits to sophisticated applications allowing seamless user connectivity and mobility.

Traditionally, system design has been greatly facilitated by following a layered approach where each layer of the network is designed and optimized separately. As an example, the link layer can be optimized by viewing the physical layer as a bit pipe with given capacity and bit-error rate. Historically, systems have greatly benefited from this level of abstraction. However, this view is suboptimal. In order for future networks to achieve the required performance gains and exploit the available resources to the fullest possible extent, more than one layer should be considered jointly when designing the system and when making scheduling and resource allocation decisions. In many cases the attained performance gains (and the associated financial revenue) may justify the increased complexity in the system design and implementation.

This survey focuses on cross-layer resource allocation and scheduling policies for cellular wireless systems. As will be described in the following, these policies consider not only the channel condition (state), but also some utility function that depends, in general, on QoS and fairness criteria. Moreover, because user traffic appears randomly, in order to guarantee stability and increase the achievable rates, the number of bits (or packets) waiting for transmission in the user or node queues often needs to be taken into account. Unlike earlier approaches, the physical layer does not decide on the rate and the modulation scheme independently. Rather, a cross-layer controller schedules users that are allowed to transmit during a given interval and allocates the usage of the resources of the channel at the physical layer based on the traffic needs of higher layers. In general, the controller also implements scheduling, allocation and routing policies at higher layers. However, the focus of this survey is on joint physical and link/network layer adaptation.

Several reviews on cross-layer resource allocation and scheduling have appeared recently, an evidence of the increased research interest in the area. In (Lin, Shroff & Srikant, 2006) a survey of policies for both single-hop and multiple-hop networks is given. For single-hop networks it is assumed that only one user can transmit (or receive) at any given time. While this is generally true in systems using time division and the model can also apply to frequency and code division with appropriate changes, from an information-theoretic point of view it may be optimal to transmit to more than one user simultaneously. In (Berry & Yeh, 2004) the authors focus on techniques for fading multiple access (MAC) and fading broadcast (BC) channels and examine policies that allocate a vector of powers and rates to more than one users, in general. Finally, (Chiang et al., 2007) reviews the current status of the “layering as optimization decomposition” effort to develop a mathematical framework for future networks where an appropriate vertical layer topology is first defined, and each layer is then optimized horizontally.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Network Capacity Region: The closure of the set of all arrival user rates that can be stably supported by a network when all possible scheduling, routing and resource allocation policies are considered. This includes knowledge of future states. The network capacity region cannot exceed the information-theoretic capacity region

Multiple Access Channel (MAC): A channel of N users xi i=1,…,N wishing to send information to a user x0 though a shared medium resulting to superposition of the signals that x0 receives from each user.

Broadcast Channel (BC): A channel comprising a user x0 wishing to send (in general different) information to users xi i=1,…,N through a shared medium resulting to each user receiving the signal emitted by x0 (in general through a different channel).

Throughput Optimality: The property that characterizes a scheduling scheme that guarantees system stability (stability of all individual queues of the network).

Queue State Information (QSI): Information on the queue corresponding to a user. The state may correspond to the queue length, the delay of the packet at the head of the queue, or to more general quantities such as individual packet priorities

Information-Theoretic Capacity Region: The closure of the set of all achievable rates in a channel as found from Information Theory (i.e., the supremium of the mutual information). Assumes regular traffic (or traffic averaged for a sufficiently long time so that burstiness is eliminated)

Channel State Information (CSI): Information on the state of the channel, namely channel gain and/or channel phase. Used by the controller for scheduling and resource allocation

Complete Chapter List

Search this Book:
Reset
Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Foreword
Robert A. Walker, Drew Parker
Preface
Stavros Kotsopoulos, Konstantinos Ioannou
Acknowledgment
Chapter 1
Dzmitry Kliazovich, Michael Devetsikiotis, Fabrizio Granelli
The layering principle has been long identified as a way to increase the interoperability and to improve the design of telecommunication protocols... Sample PDF
Formal Methods in Cross Layer Modeling and Optimization of Wireless Networks: State of the Art and Future Directions
$37.50
Chapter 2
Dimitris Toumpakaris, Jungwon Lee
This chapter presents an introduction to cross-layer scheduling and resource allocation for wireless systems and an overview of some of the... Sample PDF
Cross-Layer Resource Allocation and Scheduling for Wireless Systems
$37.50
Chapter 3
Prashant Pillai
IP multicast mechanisms provide efficient bandwidth consumption and distribution of high volume contents such as audio/video streaming... Sample PDF
An AAA Framework for IP Multicast Communication in Next Generation Networks
$37.50
Chapter 4
N. Merlemis, D. Zevgolis
This chapter is an introduction of the Wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) technologies (such as Dense WDM and coarse WDM) and their recent... Sample PDF
Wavelength Division Multiplexing Technologies and their Applications
$37.50
Chapter 5
Sotiris Karabetsos, Spiros Mikroulis, Athanase Nassiopoulos
The high capacity offered by the optical fiber, combined with the mobility and the flexibility of wireless access, either fixed or not, provides an... Sample PDF
Radio over Fiber for Broadband Communications: A Promising Technology for Next Generation Networks
$37.50
Chapter 6
Konstantinos Birkos
High Altitude Stratospheric Platforms (HASPs) have gained much of attention from the scientific society and the communication industry in the recent... Sample PDF
High Altitude Stratospheric Platforms (HASPs)
$37.50
Chapter 7
Dimitrios K. Lymberopoulos
The Next Generation Network (NGN) is a very complex environment, where various parties (network operators, services and application providers... Sample PDF
Test Template for Data Mining Publications
$37.50
Chapter 8
Konstantinos S. Kotsopoulos
Next Generation Networks (NGNs) will accommodate heterogeneous architectures that need to be managed in order to provide services with high QoS to... Sample PDF
The Adoption of Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) in Managing Next Generation Networks (NGNs)
$37.50
Chapter 9
Ioannis Papapanagiotou, Georgios S. Paschos
The present chapter contains a thorough investigation of Quality of Service, Energy Conservation and mobility in 802.11 and 802.16 standards.... Sample PDF
A Case Study on the QoS, Energy Consumption and Mobility of WLANs and WMANs
$37.50
Chapter 10
Panagiotis Kasimatis, Dimitra Varla
This chapter deals with the description of the various applied Mobile System Architectures, showing the evolution path towards the IP Convergence... Sample PDF
Mobile Telecom System Architectures—IMS an Evolution Path Towards IP Convergence
$37.50
Chapter 11
Peter Brida, Peter Cepel, Jan Duha
This chapter deals with mobile positioning in wireless heterogeneous next generation networks. Positioning process is analyzed and the chapter gives... Sample PDF
Mobile Positioning in Next Generation Networks
$37.50
Chapter 12
Anthony Ioannidis, Jiorgis Kritsotakis
Convergence in the communication industry is a reality – networks are being integrated, digital devices are being unified, and organizations seeking... Sample PDF
Converged Networks and Seamless Mobility: Lessons from Experience
$37.50
Chapter 13
Costas Chaikalis, Felip Riera-Palou
Modern and future wireless communication systems such as UMTS and beyond 3G systems (B3G) are expected to support very high data rates to/from... Sample PDF
Efficient Receiver Implementation for Mobile Applications
$37.50
Chapter 14
Apostolos Georgiadis, Carles Fernández Prades
Multi-antenna systems incorporating smart antenna techniques present numerous advantages compared to their single antenna counterparts including... Sample PDF
Novel Multi-Antenna and Smart Antenna Techniques for Next Generation Wireless Communication Networks
$37.50
Chapter 15
Stelios A. Mitilineos, Christos N. Capsalis, Stelios C.A. Thomopoulos
Small-scale fading strongly affects the performance of a radio link; therefore radio channel simulation tools and models are broadly being used in... Sample PDF
Simulation of Small-Scale Fading in Mobile Channel Models for Next-Generation Wireless Communications
$37.50
Chapter 16
Petros Karadimas
This chapter studies a composite stochastic model, in which the diffuse component arises from three dimensional (3-D) multipath scattering. That... Sample PDF
Stochastic Modeling of Narrowband Fading Channels with Three Dimensional Diffuse Scattering
$37.50
Chapter 17
Anastasios Papazafeiropoulos
As a consequence of the growing interest in wireless communications systems, much effort is being devoted to the channel characterization and... Sample PDF
Channel Characterization and Modelling for Mobile Communications
$37.50
Chapter 18
Fotis C. Kitsios, Spyros P. Angelopoulos, John Zannetopoulos
There is no doubt that e-government is a phenomenon of our era. E-business is becoming vital on the private sector as well as in the governmental... Sample PDF
Innovation and E-Government: An in Depth Overview on E-Services
$37.50
Chapter 19
Spyros P. Angelopoulos, Fotis C. Kitsios, Eduard Babulak
Telecommunications and Internet Technologies have evolved dramatically during the last decade, laying a solid foundation for the future generation... Sample PDF
From E to U: Towards an Innovative Digital Era
$37.50
Chapter 20
Fotis C. Kitsios
Nowadays that the world depends more and more in services, there is no issue more fundamental for service organizations than understanding the... Sample PDF
Service Innovation Management: New Service Development Strategies in the Telecommunication Industry Test Template for Data Mining Publications
$37.50
Chapter 21
D. M. Emiris
Auctioning over Wireless Networks, constitutes an attractive emerging class for m-commerce applications and formulates a procurement negotiation... Sample PDF
The Expansion of E-Marketplace to M-Marketplace by Integrating Mobility and Auctions in a Location-Sensitive Environment: Application in Procurement of Logistics Services
$37.50
Chapter 22
Achilles D. Kameas
This chapter describes a human centric approach for designing and deploying ubiquitous computing applications. These are considered as activity... Sample PDF
Deploying Ubiquitous Computing Applications on Heterogeneous Next Generation Networks
$37.50
Chapter 23
Eduard Babulak, Konstantinos G. Ioannou, Athanasios Ioannou
Transportation and Internet Technologies have evolved dramatically during the last decade, laying solid foundation for the future generation of the... Sample PDF
Channel Management Schemes to Support Services in Ubiquitous Communications Infrastructures for Future Transportation Technologies
$37.50
About the Contributors