The incorporation of culture in the design process is not a simple task. It is one with multiple layers of depth and complexity. But it is also not impossible. CBM captures the nature of culture in design by providing designers with guidance in creating, replicating, modeling, planning, understanding, monitoring, researching, analyzing, integrating, enhancing, communicating, managing, and assessing culture in ICTs.
What Is Cbm?
CBM is an intercultural instructional design framework that guides designers through the management, design, development, and assessment process while taking into account explicit culture-based considerations. The framework provides design guidance from the inception of an idea to its completion and beyond. Guidance is approached from the target audience’s perspective. This type of situatedness is consistent with constructivist theories and research that, to build ICTs for individuals or groups, the design must be situated from the target audience’s perspective (Bednar, Cunningham, Duffy, & Perry, 1992; Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989; Bruner, 1985; Lave & Wenger, 1991; Resnick, 1987; Rogoff & Lave, 1984; Vygotsky, 1978).
CBM represents a contemporary example of a model of culture (Young, 2008). It is symbolized by the graphic representation of a circle encased by other circles to demonstrate its iterative functioning and self-selection process (see Figure 1). The functioning symbolizes how the model continues to work like a machine with each active component responding to the next. The self-selection allows designers to choose which areas best meet the needs of the project. CBM comprises eight areas consistent with the acronym ID-TABLET: Inquiry, Development, Team, Assessments, Brainstorming, Learners, Elements, and Training.
The culture-based model: ID-TABLET—A model of culture
In classifying CBM in the field of instructional design, it might be referred to as a product-oriented model versus a classroom or systems oriented model. Product-oriented models focus on the development of products. These models have been developed by researchers in the fields of computer-aided software engineering (de Hoog, de Jong, & de Vries, 1994), video production (Bergman & Moore, 1990), distance education, e-learning (Bates, 1995), curriculum development, computer-assisted design (Nieveen, 1997) and instructional design (Seels & Glasgow, 1998). This line of research exemplifies the complex process of product development and the multifaceted needs across disciplines.
Product-oriented models usually serve a need, involve the production of a product, require analysis and re-analysis, and enable individualized instruction (Gustafson & Branch, 2002).
Focus on the production of a product;
Typically the production is a few hours or days;
Are usually well financed;
Involves a team of highly skilled people;
Is high quality, original, technologically stylish, and marketable;
Requires more time in preproduction analysis;
Must be self-instructional and intuitive requiring little human facilitation;
Provide comprehensive testing and modifications;
Use mass distribution; and
Provide an aesthetically pleasing product (Gustafson & Branch, 2002).
The use of product-oriented models should be contingent on the context of the instructional design project. CBM, as with any instructional design model, should be modified on the basis of the context of the processes (Bates, 1995; Gustafson & Branch, 2002; Seels & Glasgow, 1998; Tessmer & Wedman, 1995).