The Culture-Based Model Framework

The Culture-Based Model Framework

Patricia A. Young (University of Maryland at Baltimore, USA)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 17
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-426-2.ch003
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Abstract

The incorporation of culture in the design process is not a simple task. It is one with multiple layers of depth and complexity. But it is also not impossible. CBM captures the nature of culture in design by providing designers with guidance in creating, replicating, modeling, planning, understanding, monitoring, researching, analyzing, integrating, enhancing, communicating, managing, and assessing culture in ICTs.
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What Is Cbm?

CBM is an intercultural instructional design framework that guides designers through the management, design, development, and assessment process while taking into account explicit culture-based considerations. The framework provides design guidance from the inception of an idea to its completion and beyond. Guidance is approached from the target audience’s perspective. This type of situatedness is consistent with constructivist theories and research that, to build ICTs for individuals or groups, the design must be situated from the target audience’s perspective (Bednar, Cunningham, Duffy, & Perry, 1992; Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989; Bruner, 1985; Lave & Wenger, 1991; Resnick, 1987; Rogoff & Lave, 1984; Vygotsky, 1978).

CBM represents a contemporary example of a model of culture (Young, 2008). It is symbolized by the graphic representation of a circle encased by other circles to demonstrate its iterative functioning and self-selection process (see Figure 1). The functioning symbolizes how the model continues to work like a machine with each active component responding to the next. The self-selection allows designers to choose which areas best meet the needs of the project. CBM comprises eight areas consistent with the acronym ID-TABLET: Inquiry, Development, Team, Assessments, Brainstorming, Learners, Elements, and Training.

Figure 1.

The culture-based model: ID-TABLET—A model of culture

In classifying CBM in the field of instructional design, it might be referred to as a product-oriented model versus a classroom or systems oriented model. Product-oriented models focus on the development of products. These models have been developed by researchers in the fields of computer-aided software engineering (de Hoog, de Jong, & de Vries, 1994), video production (Bergman & Moore, 1990), distance education, e-learning (Bates, 1995), curriculum development, computer-assisted design (Nieveen, 1997) and instructional design (Seels & Glasgow, 1998). This line of research exemplifies the complex process of product development and the multifaceted needs across disciplines.

Product-oriented models usually serve a need, involve the production of a product, require analysis and re-analysis, and enable individualized instruction (Gustafson & Branch, 2002).

Product-oriented models:

  • Focus on the production of a product;

  • Typically the production is a few hours or days;

  • Are usually well financed;

  • Involves a team of highly skilled people;

  • Is high quality, original, technologically stylish, and marketable;

  • Requires more time in preproduction analysis;

  • Must be self-instructional and intuitive requiring little human facilitation;

  • Provide comprehensive testing and modifications;

  • Use mass distribution; and

  • Provide an aesthetically pleasing product (Gustafson & Branch, 2002).

The use of product-oriented models should be contingent on the context of the instructional design project. CBM, as with any instructional design model, should be modified on the basis of the context of the processes (Bates, 1995; Gustafson & Branch, 2002; Seels & Glasgow, 1998; Tessmer & Wedman, 1995).

Complete Chapter List

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Dedication
Table of Contents
Foreword
Rita C. Richey
Acknowledgment
Chapter 1
Patricia A. Young
If the history of the world is properly searched, the birth of innovation in learning theory as a practice and psychology as a science can be found... Sample PDF
Beginnings in Instructional Design and Culture
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Chapter 2
Patricia A. Young
There have been many definitions of culture hypothesized by theorists and scholars as a way to understand human beings, other species and entities;... Sample PDF
The Nature of Culture in Design
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Chapter 3
Patricia A. Young
The incorporation of culture in the design process is not a simple task. It is one with multiple layers of depth and complexity. But it is also not... Sample PDF
The Culture-Based Model Framework
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Chapter 4
Patricia A. Young
Inquiry (11-16) monitors development, automates the internal flow of the design process, and functions as internal sensors. This monitoring checks... Sample PDF
CBM Inquiry, Development
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Chapter 5
Patricia A. Young
Team (T1–T3) focuses on the recruitment of a culturally sensitive design team that includes a cultural expert, an educator, and other culturally... Sample PDF
CBM Team, Assessments, Brainstorming
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Chapter 6
CBM Learners  (pages 88-99)
Patricia A. Young
The Learners (L1-L10) area centers on the needs of learners and learning. These design factors assist in providing a dynamic learning environment... Sample PDF
CBM Learners
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Chapter 7
CBM Elements I  (pages 100-125)
Patricia A. Young
Elements (E1-E25) facilitate content development. These Elements are intended to be comprehensive in providing the fundamental total of which all... Sample PDF
CBM Elements I
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Chapter 8
CBM Elements II  (pages 126-141)
Patricia A. Young
This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the anthropology of culture. Cultural communications is covered in its... Sample PDF
CBM Elements II
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Chapter 9
CBM Elements III  (pages 142-173)
Patricia A. Young
This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the anthropology of culture. Cultural demographics and Cultural... Sample PDF
CBM Elements III
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Chapter 10
CBM Elements IV  (pages 174-214)
Patricia A. Young
This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the anthropology of culture. Cultural history is covered in its entirety.... Sample PDF
CBM Elements IV
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Chapter 11
CBM Elements V  (pages 215-231)
Patricia A. Young
This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the anthropology of culture. Cultural knowledge, Cultural language... Sample PDF
CBM Elements V
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Chapter 12
CBM Elements VI  (pages 232-253)
Patricia A. Young
This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the psychology of culture. All of the design factors related to... Sample PDF
CBM Elements VI
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Chapter 13
CBM Elements VII  (pages 254-278)
Patricia A. Young
This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the science of culture. The following design factors are covered in this... Sample PDF
CBM Elements VII
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Chapter 14
Patricia A. Young
This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the science of culture. The following design factors are covered in this... Sample PDF
CBM Elements VII & Training
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Chapter 15
Patricia A. Young
Instructional design includes the production of educational products such as software, Web-based environments, video games, videos, films, and print... Sample PDF
Case Study of an Educational Product
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Chapter 16
Case Study in Game Design  (pages 316-330)
Patricia A. Young
The global game industry expects substantial growth in the next decades. Massive multiplayer online games (MMOG) are expected to skyrocket from the... Sample PDF
Case Study in Game Design
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Chapter 17
Case Study in E-Learning  (pages 331-341)
Patricia A. Young
The future of e-learning is wide open in terms of innovations in software, hardware, instructional content, and teaching practices. Recent... Sample PDF
Case Study in E-Learning
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Chapter 18
Case Study in Research  (pages 342-358)
Patricia A. Young
Research is seen as a bad word, more work and lots more money. However, research is a good thing to do and engage in before, during and after... Sample PDF
Case Study in Research
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Chapter 19
Conclusion  (pages 359-364)
Patricia A. Young
Culture works as a design construct. It is apparent that there are many factors operating to make this happen. First, the nature of culture in... Sample PDF
Conclusion
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About the Author