As an important aspect of instruction, assessment is mainly used for grading achievement rather than as a means to support teaching and learning. CyberCoaching System (CCS) is introduced and elucidated as a theoretical framework for an alternative dynamic assessment that can be used for coaching on-line. Such assessment is referred to as a diagnostic cognitive assessment (DCA). Its function is to diagnose cognitive processes for effective learning and instructional intervention. To support DCA, CCS is composed of the ‘Expert Knowledge Model’, the ‘Statistical Models’, and the ‘Student Model’. The Expert Knowledge Model emulates human coaching by modeling coach’s expert knowledge. The statistical models provide probabilistic inferences of the cognitive processes of learning. The student model updates student profiles. A learning episode of sum of squares and cross products in statistics is used as an example to show how CCS can work. Further research on cognitive diagnostic assessment, and prototyping CCS for future development are suggested.
Key Terms in this Chapter
Situated Cognition: Thinking and learning occur in the context of using knowledge and skills to complete a task (e.g., solving a problem).
Diagnostic Assessment: Measuring for diagnostic purposes (i.e., to identify what has been achieved and what has not been achieved for improving instructional interventions) and learning.
Conventional Assessment: Measuring for the purposes of grading and screening purposes. Test items focus on recalling of discrete facts rather than problem solving skills.
Cognitive Assessment: Measuring the cognitive processes underlying learning performance for identifying factors that contribute to learning or errors.
Assessment: Measurement and evaluation.
Psychometrics: As a branch of psychology, psychometrics involves the task of measuring cognitive processes, and studying differences between individuals. These tasks include the construction of instruments and procedures, as well as the development and refinement of theoretical approaches to measurement.
Bayesian Networks: A statistical probabilistic approach to reasoning derived from evidence.
Learner-Centered Approach: An approach to teaching and learning that focuses on learning directed by the learner rather than directed by the instructor.