This chapter focuses on the potential contributions that Data Mining (DM) could make within the Human Resource (HR) function in organizations. We first provide a basic introduction to DM techniques and processes and a survey of the literature on the steps involved in successfully mining this information. We also discuss the importance of data warehousing and datamart considerations. An examination of the contrast between DM and more routine statistical studies is given, and the value of HR information to support a firm’s competitive position and organizational decision-making is considered. Examples of potential applications are outlined in terms of data that is ordinarily captured in HR information systems.