Decentralization in Distributed Systems: Challenges, Technologies, and Opportunities

Decentralization in Distributed Systems: Challenges, Technologies, and Opportunities

Mustafizur Rahman (The University of Melbourne, Australia), Rajiv Ranjan (The University of New South Wales, Australia) and Rajkumar Buyya (The University of Melbourne, Australia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-61350-110-8.ch018
OnDemand PDF Download:


In recent years, decentralization in distributed computing systems, such as Grids and Clouds has been widely explored in order to improve system performance in terms of scalability and reliability. However, the decentralized nature of the system also raises some serious challenges. This chapter discusses the major challenges of designing and implementing decentralization in Grid and Cloud systems. It also presents a survey of some existing decentralized distributed systems and technologies regarding how these systems have addressed the challenges.
Chapter Preview


A distributed computing system enables the sharing, selection, and aggregation of distributed heterogeneous computational and storage resources, which are under the control of different sites or domains. The key applications of the computational distributed systems is to provide solutions to the complex scientific or engineering problems, such as weather forecasting, stock portfolio management, medical diagnoses.

The configuration of a distributed system is considered as decentralized if none of the participants in the system are more important than the others, in case that one of the participants fails, then it is neither more nor less harmful to the system than caused by the failure of any other participant in the system. Thus, in a Decentralized distributed system, management services, such as application scheduling, resource discovery are distributed over the sites so that if one site is failed, another site can take over its responsibility autonomously. Moreover, decentralized systems are highly scalable as they can seamlessly add or remove the components or resource pool in order to accommodate varying workload. On the other hand, in a centralized distributed system, the central servers play the role of scheduling and resource discovery services. In Figure 1, we present example application runtime scenarios in case of both centralized and decentralized distributed system.

Figure 1.

Application runtime environment in centralized and decentralized distributed systems: (a) centralized system, (b) decentralized system

Decentralization of distributed computing systems based on Peer-to-Peer (P2P) network model can certainly overcome the limitations of centralized and hierarchical model in terms of scalability, single point failure, autonomy, and trust-worthiness. However, complete decentralized nature of the system raises other serious challenges in domains of application scheduling, resource allocation, coordination, resource discovery, security, trust, and reputation management between participants.

In this chapter, we aim to identify the basic challenges of decentralized distributed systems and survey some existing decentralized distributed systems and technologies along with a case study. Specifically, we describe the basic functionalities and important features of these systems and technologies, as well as compare them in the context of addressing the challenges. Finally, we outline some opportunities or future directions in this research discipline.


Challenges Of Decentralized Distributed Systems


In centralized scheduling approach, all the system-wide decision makings are coordinated by a central controller. Centralized scheduler organization is simple to implement, easy to deploy, and presents few management hassles. However, this scheme raises serious concerns when subjected to larger system size.

The decentralized scheduler organization negates the limitations of centralized organization with respect to fault-tolerance, scalability, and autonomy (facilitating domain specific resource allocation policies). This approach scales well for both, a small scale resource sharing environment (e.g. resource sharing under same administrative domain) to a large scale environment (e.g. the Internet). However, this approach raises serious challenges in the domain of distributed information management, enforcing system wide coordination, security, resource consumer authenticity, and resource provider's policy heterogeneity. We can classify decentralized scheduling into two categories.

Complete Chapter List

Search this Book:
Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Al-Sakib Khan Pathan, Mukaddim Pathan, Hae Young Lee
Al-Sakib Khan Pathan, Mukaddim Pathan, Hae Young Lee
Chapter 1
Homero Toral-Cruz, Deni Torres-Román, Leopoldo Estrada-Vargas
Our studies have revealed that VoIP jitter can be modeled by self-similar processes, and through a decomposition based on Haar wavelet it is shown a... Sample PDF
Analysis and Modeling of QoS Parameters in VoIP Traffic
Chapter 2
Esma Yildirim, Tevfik Kosar
The emerging petascale increase in the data produced by large-scale scientific applications necessitates innovative solutions for efficient transfer... Sample PDF
End-to-End Dataflow Parallelism for Transfer Throughput Optimization
Chapter 3
Sajjad Zare, Akbar Ghaffarpour Rahbar
The Internet Protocol-based television (IPTV) uses digital TV technology and transmits TV and video contents over IP-based networks, where customers... Sample PDF
IPTV Challenges and Solutions in Metro Networks
Chapter 4
Mohammed Jubaer Arif
Distributed computing, comprised of different components of an application located on different computers connected via network, has allowed value... Sample PDF
Utilization of Latency Measurements for Network-Based Applications
Chapter 5
Laurent Bobelin
Discovering a network topology and inferring its performances for the client/server case is a well known field of study. However, client/server... Sample PDF
MINTCar: A Tool Enabling Multiple Source Multiple Destination Network Tomography
Chapter 6
Apostolos Kousaridas, Panagis Madgalinos, Nancy Alonistioti
Future Internet is based on the concepts of autonomicity and cognition, where each network element is able to monitor its surrounding environment... Sample PDF
Service Provision Evolution in Self-Managed Future Internet Environments
Chapter 7
Carlos Lino, Carlos Tavares Calafate, Pietro Manzoni, Juan-Carlos Cano, Arnoldo Díaz
The performance of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) at monitoring time-critical events is an important research topic, mainly due to the need to... Sample PDF
Evaluating the Performance of the IEEE 802.15.4 Standard in Supporting Time-Critical Wireless Sensor Networks
Chapter 8
Kai Lin, Lei Wang, Lei Shu, Al-Sakib Khan Pathan
This chapter addresses the problem of data gathering with multi-attribute fusion over a bandwidth and energy constrained wireless sensor network... Sample PDF
Data Gathering with Multi-Attribute Fusion in Wireless Sensor Networks
Chapter 9
Yiying Zhang, Lin He, Lei Shu, Takahiro Hara, Shojiro Nishio
Outliers in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are sensor nodes that launch attacks by abnormal behaviors and fake message dissemination. However... Sample PDF
Security Issues on Outlier Detection and Countermeasure for Distributed Hierarchical Wireless Sensor Networks
Chapter 10
Abedelaziz Mohaisen, Tamer AbuHmed, DaeHun Nyang
The use of public key algorithms to sensor networks brings all merits of these algorithms to such networks: nodes do not need to encounter each... Sample PDF
Computationally Efficient Cooperative Public Key Authentication Protocols in Ubiquitous Sensor Network
Chapter 11
Guangjie Han, Wen Shen, Chuan Zhu, Lei Shu, Joel J.P.C. Rodrigues
The key problem of location service in indoor sensor networks is to quickly and precisely acquire the position information of mobile nodes. Due to... Sample PDF
RNST: Precise Localization Based on Trilateration for Indoor Sensor Networks
Chapter 12
Antonio Guerrieri, Giancarlo Fortino, Antonio Ruzzelli, Gregory M.P. O’Hare
Using wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for auditing and managing the energy consumption in a building is an emerging research area that includes a... Sample PDF
A WSN-Based Building Management Framework to Support Energy-Saving Applications in Buildings
Chapter 13
Cuong Pham, Duc A. Tran
P2P is a popular networking paradigm in today’s Internet. As such, many research and development efforts are geared toward services that can be... Sample PDF
Publish/Subscribe Techniques For P2P Networks
Chapter 14
Cristina Melchiors, Dionatan Teixeira Mattjie, Carlos Raniery Paula dos Santos, André Panisson, Lisandro Zambenedetti Granville, Liane Margarida Rockenbach Tarouco
Several activities are employed in network management to ensure correct network operation, including administration, monitoring, and provisioning of... Sample PDF
A P2P-Based Strongly Distributed Network Polling Solution
Chapter 15
Qiang Duan
With the rapid development of various emerging technologies, such as Web services, Grid computing, and cloud computing, computer networks have... Sample PDF
Service-Oriented Networking for the Next Generation Distributed Computing
Chapter 16
Bing He, Bin Xie, Sanjuli Agrawal, David Zhao, Ranga Reddy
With the ever growing demand on high throughput for mobile users, 3G cellular networks are limited in their network capacity for offering high data... Sample PDF
Long-Term Evolution (LTE): Broadband-Enabled Next Generation of Wireless Mobile Cellular Network
Chapter 17
Valeria Cardellini, Emiliano Casalicchio, Luca Silvestri
Cloud computing has recently emerged in the landscape of Information Technology as a compelling paradigm for managing and delivering services over... Sample PDF
Service Level Provisioning for Cloud-Based Applications Service Level Provisioning for Cloud-Based Applications
Chapter 18
Mustafizur Rahman, Rajiv Ranjan, Rajkumar Buyya
In recent years, decentralization in distributed computing systems, such as Grids and Clouds has been widely explored in order to improve system... Sample PDF
Decentralization in Distributed Systems: Challenges, Technologies, and Opportunities
About the Contributors