Defending against Distributed Denial of Service

Defending against Distributed Denial of Service

Yang Xiang (Central Queensland University, Australia) and Wanlei Zhou (Deakin University, Australia)
Copyright: © 2007 |Pages: 9
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59140-987-8.ch019
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Recently the notorious Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks made people aware of the importance of providing available data and services securely to users. A DDoS attack is characterized by an explicit attempt from an attacker to prevent legitimate users of a service from using the desired resource (CERT, 2006). For example, in February 2000, many Web sites such as Yahoo,, eBuy,, Buy. com, ZDNet, E*Trade, and were all subject to total or regional outages by DDoS attacks. In 2002, a massive DDoS attack briefly interrupted Web traffic on nine of the 13 DNS “root” servers that control the Internet (Naraine, 2002). In 2004, a number of DDoS attacks assaulted the credit card processor Authorize. net, the Web infrastructure provider Akamai Systems, the interactive advertising company DoubleClick (left that company’s servers temporarily unable to deliver ads to thousands of popular Web sites), and many online gambling sites (Arnfield, 2004). Nowadays, Internet applications face serious security problems caused by DDoS attacks. For example, according to CERT/CC Statistics 1998-2005 (CERT, 2006), computer-based vulnerabilities reported have increased exponentially since 1998. Effective approaches to defeat DDoS attacks are desperately demanded (Cisco, 2001; Gibson, 2002).

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Editorial Advisory Board
Marian Quigley
Marian Quigley
Chapter 1
Koon-Ying Raymond Li, James Sofra
With the exponential growth in desktop computing power and advancements in Web-based technologies over the past decade, the virtual community is now... Sample PDF
3D Avatars and Collaborative Virtual Environments
Chapter 2
Yifeng Shen
Thanks to the rapid development in the field of information technology, healthcare providers rely more and more on information systems to deliver... Sample PDF
Access Control for Healthcare
Chapter 3
Savvas Papagiannidis, Michael Bourlakis
Advances in technology, in particular the Internet and mobile/wireless devices, have significantly affected business operations. As technology... Sample PDF
Advertising in the Networked Environment
Chapter 4
Wenbing Zhao
A peer-to-peer (P2P) system refers to a distributed system in which the role played by each member is roughly equivalent, that is, a member both... Sample PDF
Anonymous Peer-to-Peer Systems
Chapter 5
Ephraim Nissan
Argumentation is usually thought of as a domain within philosophy, or rhetoric. Yet, it has made inroads in the works of computer scientists... Sample PDF
Argumentation and Computing
Chapter 6
Ephraim Nissan
In the previous article, “Argumentation and Computing,” we provided an overview as well as some operational knowledge of this important, emerging... Sample PDF
Argumentation with Wigmore Charts and Computing
Chapter 7
Ephraim Nissan
This article is a concise overview of a field which until the late 1990s did not exist in its own right: computer and computational methods for... Sample PDF
Artificial Intelligence Tools for Handling Legal Evidence
Chapter 8
Jianxia Du
In technology education, African American women are normally in the minority. Contributing factors include the continuation of discrimination based... Sample PDF
Barriers Facing African American Women in Technology
Chapter 9
Antonio Grillo
The B-POS (Bluetooth Point of Sale) is the prototype of a secure, mobile macropayment system. Since heterogeneous wireless network technologies such... Sample PDF
B-POS Secure Mobile Payment System
Chapter 10
Wenbing Zhao
Information systems are essential building blocks in any business or institution. They can be used to automate most business processes and... Sample PDF
Building Secure and Dependable Information Systems
Chapter 11
Zack Jourdan
Practitioners and researchers have been working to develop information systems (IS) that are functional and yet secure from a variety of threats at... Sample PDF
Classifying Articles in Information Ethics and Security
Chapter 12
Computational Ethics  (pages 76-82)
Alicia I. Ruvinsky
Computational ethics is the integration of computer simulation and ethics theory. More specifically, computational ethics is an agent-based... Sample PDF
Computational Ethics
Chapter 13
Yefim Kats
This article is a survey of moral and social challenges related to the development of intelligent technologies and the emerging phenomenon of the... Sample PDF
Computer Ethics and Intelligent Technologies
Chapter 14
Robert J. Cole
Since the first widespread Internet worm incident in 1988, computer worms have become a major Internet threat and a subject of increasing academic... Sample PDF
Computer Worms, Detection, and Defense
Chapter 15
Matthew Butler
The term MP3 conjures up a great many different thoughts and feelings. To some the creation and proliferation of the MP3 music file has meant the... Sample PDF
Conflicting Value of Digital Music Piracy
Chapter 16
Jengchung V. Chen
The Internet is widely recognized as an important information and communication medium. It has also become a useful tool for children’s education... Sample PDF
Content Filtering Methods for Internet Pornography
Chapter 17
Christopher Beggs
Cyber-terrorism has evolved as a new form of terrorism since the development of new information and communication technologies (ICTs) such as the... Sample PDF
Cyber-Terrorism in Australia
Chapter 18
Data Security and Chase  (pages 114-120)
Zbigniew W. Ras, Seunghyun Im
This article describes requirements and approaches necessary for ensuring data confidentiality in knowledge discovery systems. Data mining systems... Sample PDF
Data Security and Chase
Chapter 19
Yang Xiang, Wanlei Zhou
Recently the notorious Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks made people aware of the importance of providing available data and services... Sample PDF
Defending against Distributed Denial of Service
Chapter 20
Irene Chen, Terry T. Kidd
Within the past decade, a growing body of evidence supports the ever-widening technological gap among members of the society and world, in... Sample PDF
Digital Divide Implications and Trends
Chapter 21
Jo Anne Cote, Eun G. Park
In the digital world, several ways to organize and describe digital rights management (DRM) have been developed to enforce fairness and transparency... Sample PDF
Digital Rights Management Metadata and Standards
Chapter 22
Omer Mahmood
Identity theft is a rapidly growing problem in the electronic environment. It has been recognized as the most widespread and fastest growing crime... Sample PDF
Dilemmas of Online Identity Theft
Chapter 23
Christopher H. Walker
While issues of encryption, firewalls, surveillance technologies, and cyber terrorism occupy the day-to- day thoughts of contemporary practitioners... Sample PDF
Document Security in the Ancient World
Chapter 24
Bong Wee Kiau
Electronic publishing (e-publishing) is the process of publishing information to be viewed electronically or online and delivered in the form of... Sample PDF
DRM Practices in the E-Publication Industry
Chapter 25
Kathleen Gray
Many ethical issues arise when educators undertake any kind of research into their own practice with their own students, and a number of ethical... Sample PDF
Educational Technology Practitioner-Research Ethics
Chapter 26
Prajesh Chhanabhai
The Internet is one of the most utilized resources for obtaining information, learning, communication, and as a source of advice. The most sought... Sample PDF
E-Health and Ensuring Quality
Chapter 27
A. Srivastava
The advent of the Internet once again raised the question as to what constitutes a signature and what form of signature should be used to sign... Sample PDF
Electronic Signatures and Ethics
Chapter 28
Tagelsir Mohamed Gasmelseid
The migration of business enterprises to decentralized operations, location independence, and micromanagement has been accompanied by the emergence... Sample PDF
Engineering Multi-Agent Systems
Chapter 29
Sophie Nichol
Using the Internet to conduct online surveys is not a new form of data collection. A large proportion of marketing analysis or customer surveys are... Sample PDF
Ethical Approach to Gathering Survey Data Online
Chapter 30
Sutirtha Chatterjee
In this information age, serious concerns with unethical behaviour in information technology (e.g., software piracy, deception, plagiarism, etc.)... Sample PDF
Ethical Behaviour in Technology-Mediated Communication
Chapter 31
Alistair Irons, Roger Boyle
Many more computer systems do not work in the way they are intended (Sommerville, 2004; Pressman, 2004). Computer systems are also increasingly... Sample PDF
Ethical Concerns in Computer Science Projects
Chapter 32
Stephanie Etter, Patricia G. Phillips, Ashli M. Molinero
Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a generic term that is used to describe a system that transmits the identity of an object or person... Sample PDF
The Ethical Debate Surrounding RFID
Chapter 33
Joseph A. Cazier, Ryan C. LaBrie
As we have increasing privacy and risk concerns in the world today with identity theft, questionable marketing, data mining, and profiling, it is... Sample PDF
Ethical Dilemmas in Data Mining and Warehousing
Chapter 34
Ethical Erosion at Enron  (pages 229-234)
John Wang
Enron Corporation, the seventh-largest company in the nation, was named “America’s Most Innovative Company” by Fortune Magazine from 1989 through... Sample PDF
Ethical Erosion at Enron
Chapter 35
Kirsten Ellis
Usability testing of children’s software on children is an important part of the software development and evaluation cycle, but the dilemmas of... Sample PDF
Ethical Usability Testing with Children
Chapter 36
Belinda Davis Lazarus
The growth in technology has provided unprecedented access to information and experiences for persons all over the world. An Internet search yields... Sample PDF
Ethics and Access to Technology for Persons with Disabilities
Chapter 37
Michelle M. Ramim
Recent incidents of unethical behaviors reported in the media have led scholars to initiate a debate on the subject of ethics. In particular... Sample PDF
Ethics and Perceptions in Online Learning Environments
Chapter 38
Thomas J. Tribunella, Heidi R. Tribunella
The role of government, the impact of legislation, and the interaction of public policy with capital markets in the United States will be addressed... Sample PDF
Ethics and Security under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act
Chapter 39
Lori N.K. Leonard
As a greater number of business transactions and communications are facilitated by the Internet, understanding individual behavior in this arena is... Sample PDF
Ethics Education for the Online Environment
Chapter 40
Pankaj Kamthan
There are various reasons for discussing the issue of ethics within a software engineering context. By participating in a software development... Sample PDF
Ethics in Software Engineering
Chapter 41
Sushma Mishra
Organizational security initiatives by corporations have been voted number one for IT project priorities for the year 2006. The increasing concern... Sample PDF
Ethics in the Security of Organizational Information Systems
Chapter 42
Ethics of AI  (pages 279-284)
Kevin B. Korb
The first question concerns the kinds of AI we might achieve moral, immoral, or amoral. The second concerns the ethics of our achieving such an AI.... Sample PDF
Ethics of AI
Chapter 43
Fair Use  (pages 285-290)
Pasi Tyrväskylä
Intellectual property legislation has continuously redefined the balance between the interests of stakeholders, especially the authors of creative... Sample PDF
Fair Use
Chapter 44
Michael J. Chapple
The American legal system, along with many of its counterparts around the globe, is only beginning to grapple with the legal challenges of the... Sample PDF
Federal Information Security Law
Chapter 45
Udo Richard Averweg
The diversity of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) applications and the increased use of ICTs have created a variety of ethical issues.... Sample PDF
Formulating a Code of Cyberethics for a Municipality
Chapter 46
M. J. Warren
Many aspects of our modern society now have either a direct or implicit dependence upon information technology (IT). As such, a compromise of the... Sample PDF
Hackers and Cyber Terrorists
Chapter 47
Katina Michael
Today however we are on the brink of building a new sentient being, a bearer of electricity, a modern man belonging to a new race, beyond that which... Sample PDF
Homo Electricus and the Continued Speciation of Humans
Chapter 48
Leanne Ngo
The information superhighway is here and stretching further than the eye can see. Our working environment is becoming ever more hectic and... Sample PDF
IT Security Culture Transition Process
Chapter 49
Amanda Third
‘Leapfrogging’ is the term used to describe development policies, and the processes of their implementation, that aim to move lesser developed... Sample PDF
ICT Leapfrogging Policy and Development in the Third World
Chapter 50
Ramaswamy Palaniappan, Lalit M. Patnaik
In the last several decades, computers or automated technologies have been utilized to verify the identity of humans using biometrics (i.e.... Sample PDF
Identity Verification using Resting State Brain Signals
Chapter 51
Carmel McNaught
The ‘publish or perish’ syndrome is often mentioned. However, we are now seeing cases of ‘publish and perish’, speaking from an ethical standpoint.... Sample PDF
Individual and Institutional Responses to Staff Plagiarism
Chapter 52
Bernd Carsten Stahl
If we live indeed in the early stages of what has been termed the “information society,” then it is clear that ethical concerns with regards to... Sample PDF
Information Ethics as Ideology
Chapter 53
Salam Abdallah
The Web of networks has created a convenient global environment for people to work, socialize, learn, buy, and sell. The Web has also been used as a... Sample PDF
Information Ethics from an Islamic Perspective
Chapter 54
Michael Douma, Eduard J. Gamito
The term “privacy broker” describes a concept developed in 2004 to address important privacy issues in public health research. The privacy broker... Sample PDF
Information Security and the "Privacy Broker"
Chapter 55
Julia Kotlarsky, Ilan Oshri, Corey Hirsch
Recent years have seen a surge in the introduction of networkable Windows-based operating system (NWOS) devices. Some examples are home... Sample PDF
Information Security Policies for Networkable Devices
Chapter 56
Heather Fulford, Neil Doherty
For the past two decades, it has been argued that an ‘information revolution’ is taking place that is having a significant impact upon all aspects... Sample PDF
Information Security Policy Research Agenda
Chapter 57
Internet and Suicide  (pages 384-390)
Dianne Currier
It is now commonly accepted that the appearance and expansion of Internet-based communication has given rise to new possibilities for forging social... Sample PDF
Internet and Suicide
Chapter 58
Paul Sugden
Superman, the Marvel Comic superhero, has captured the imagination of another generation, guaranteeing a box office blockbuster and merchandising... Sample PDF
Internet Piracy and Copyright Debates
Chapter 59
Elizabeth Buchanan
The Internet, as a global research phenomenon, has developed along two parallel lines: as a medium for research (e.g., databases, electronic... Sample PDF
Internet Research Ethics Questions and Considerations
Chapter 60
Elza Dunkels, AnnBritt Enochsson
When we first started using online interviews as a method for qualitative research, we had no thoughts about it being any different from... Sample PDF
Interviews with Young People using Online Chat
Chapter 61
Terry T. Kidd, Robert K. Hiltbrand
The rapid expansion and dramatic advances in information technology in recent years have without question generated tremendous benefits to business... Sample PDF
Intrusion Detection and Information Security Audits
Chapter 62
Gianluigi Me
Internet child pornography (CP) is one of the most rapidly growing problems on the Net. In particular, pedophilia has been largely facilitated by... Sample PDF
Investigation Strategy for the Small Pedophiles World
Chapter 63
Alan Sixsmithm
Organizations use various types of outsourcing for many reasons, and these have been widely documented in the research literature. However, the... Sample PDF
Managed Services and Changing Workplace Ethics
Chapter 64
Laurel Evelyn Dyson
This article explores a much under-researched field of ethics: the impact of information technology (IT) on the environment. Reducing the ecological... Sample PDF
Managing the Environmental Impact of Information Technology
Chapter 65
Mohammad Abdolmohammadi
Information technology (IT) professionals are entrusted with the design, implementation, and operation of the information systems that support key... Sample PDF
Measuring Ethical Reasoning of IT Professionals and Students
Chapter 66
Charles R. Crowell
That computing and information systems give rise to specific ethical issues related to the appropriate uses of such technology is a viewpoint that... Sample PDF
Meta View of Information Ethics
Chapter 67
Reggie Becker, Mark B. Schmidt, Allen C. Johnston
The information age is characterized by unprecedented levels of information sharing, connectivity, and convenience. Along with the expediency... Sample PDF
Mitigation of Identity Theft in the Information Age
Chapter 68
Fei Xue
As an emerging technology, mobile agents can facilitate distributed computing applications over computer networks. During the past decade, the... Sample PDF
Mobile Agents and Security
Chapter 69
Pravin Shetty, Seng Loke
The Internet has proven to be the most convenient and demanding facility for various types of businesses and transactions for the past few years. In... Sample PDF
Modelling Context-Aware Security for Electronic Health Records
Chapter 70
Lynley Hocking
The interpretation of the moral rights legislative changes should not only be viewed in terms of implementing legal requirements. The implementation... Sample PDF
Moral Rights in the Australian Public Sector
Chapter 71
Ajita Rattani
Personal identification is a fundamental activity within our society. This identification is made possible by the emergence of the new concept of... Sample PDF
Multimodal Biometric System
Chapter 72
John R. Drake
Businessmen have faced ethical dilemmas throughout history in many varying contexts. Today, chief information officers (CIOs) and information... Sample PDF
Objective Ethics for Managing InformationTechnology
Chapter 73
Benjamin J. Halpert
Technological advances do not occur in isolation of the society in which they are intended to be used. As the demand, evolution, and maturation of... Sample PDF
Parental Rights to Monitor Internet Usage
Chapter 74
Nilmini Wickramasinghe
Healthcare expenditure is increasing exponentially, and reducing this expenditure (i.e., offering effective and efficient quality healthcare... Sample PDF
Patient Centric Healthcare InformationSystems in the U.S.
Chapter 75
Melissa Dark, Richard Epstein, Linda Morales, Terry Countermine, Qing Yuan
The Internet has had an enormous impact on society. The benefits are numerous and so is the potential for misuse and abuse. Hacking, spam... Sample PDF
Pedagogical Framework for EthicalDevelopment
Chapter 76
Sabah S. Al-Fedaghi
Beginning with information ethics that is based on the machine-independent concept of information recognized to have an intrinsic moral value... Sample PDF
Personal Information Ethics
Chapter 77
Pharming Attack Designs  (pages 520-526)
Manish Gupta
Pharming is emerging as a major new Internet security threat. Pharming has overtaken “phishing” as the most dangerous Internet scam tactic... Sample PDF
Pharming Attack Designs
Chapter 78
Port Scans  (pages 527-533)
Jalal Kawash
The hardest task for a hacker is to get a foothold into a computer network system. If the hacker manages to get inside, the rest of the network is... Sample PDF
Port Scans
Chapter 79
Dick Whiddett
The special relationship of trust that needs to exist between a patient and his or her physician has been recognized since the origins of the... Sample PDF
Privacy and Access to Electronic Health Records
Chapter 80
Calin Gurau
Online privacy represents a controversial subject for Internet users and online companies alike. Most Internet- active enterprises are using cookies... Sample PDF
Privacy and Online Data Collection
Chapter 81
James P. Lawler
Many companies, such as Wal-Mart, store much of their business and customer data in large databases called data warehouses. Their customers are not... Sample PDF
Privacy in Data Mining Textbooks
Chapter 82
Sheng-Uei Guan
One hindrance to the widespread adoption of mobile agent technology is the lack of security. Security will be the issue that has to be addressed... Sample PDF
Protection of Mobile Agent Data
Chapter 83
Pravin Shetty, Seng Loke
Security of the information in a defense department of any country is of utmost importance. And today, in this nuclear world, security and privacy... Sample PDF
Rule-Based Policies for Secured Defense Meetings
Chapter 84
Sheng-Uei Guan
The focus of this article is secure transport of mobile agents. A mobile agent is useful for hand phones or handheld devices (e.g., palmtop or PDA)... Sample PDF
Secure Agent Roaming under M-Commerce
Chapter 85
Jan Skalicky Hanson
U.S. society is at the precipice of a major revolution in the payments system. Given today’s advancing technology, it is becoming clear to industry... Sample PDF
Secure Automated Clearing House Transactions
Chapter 86
Jeffrey Roy
The context of this article stems from the growing importance of digital technologies within public sector processes and applications tied to the... Sample PDF
Security Dilemmas for Canada's New Government
Chapter 87
Sanjay Jasola, Ramesh C. Sharma
Education has been the greatest tool for human resources development. The advances in information and communication technology has brought out a... Sample PDF
Security Model for Educational Satellite Networks
Chapter 88
Gregory Paperin
In this article we aim to analyze some of the advances in security of communication since this discipline evolved and to pinpoint the main problems.... Sample PDF
Security of Communication and Quantum Technology
Chapter 89
M. J. Warren
Understanding and managing information infrastructure (II) security risks is a priority to most organizations dealing with information technology... Sample PDF
Security Protection for Critical Infrastructure
Chapter 90
Spyware  (pages 616-621)
Thomas F. Stafford
There is a potent threat to computer security represented by the emerging class of applications commonly known as “spyware,” designed to remotely... Sample PDF
Chapter 91
Ralf Isenmann
As a development goal, a sustainable information society is emerging at present, with the aims of sustainability and an information society as its... Sample PDF
Sustainable Information Society
Chapter 92
Sabah S. Al-Fedaghi
Computer ethics, information ethics, personal information ethics, privacy ethics, and many other terms that juxtapose the terms “ethics,” “privacy,”... Sample PDF
Taxonomy of Computer and Information Ethics
Chapter 93
Ephraim Nissan
Narratives describe and link events. Narratives are pervasive. The representation of the handling of a project or life experiences are narratives... Sample PDF
Tools for Representing and Processing Narratives
Chapter 94
Ulia Popova-Gosart
During the past two decades, the search for an appropriate mechanism to protect ‘traditional knowledge’ has been a subject of discourse among... Sample PDF
Traditional Knowledge and Intellectual Property
Chapter 95
Alessandro Arbore
Universal service is a long-standing tradition of telecommunications policy, designed to ensure that all citizens have access to affordable, quality... Sample PDF
Universal Internet Access under an Ethical Lens
About the Editor
Key Term Index