This chapter explains the background and significance of specifications and standards that make it possible for content and management systems to work together. It examines why standards are needed and traces the challenges of developing them. It also explains the technical and operational standards that are currently available and the standards for exchanging data and communicating data. It describes the organizations that establish standards and specifications. I hope to give readers a working understanding of the principles behind today’s use of technical interoperability standards as they relate to assessments and learning.