Design of a Filmless Hospital

Design of a Filmless Hospital

Carrison K.S. Tong (Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital, HK) and Eric T.T. Wong (Hong Kong Polytechnic Institute, Hong Kong)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-672-3.ch006
OnDemand PDF Download:
$37.50

Abstract

More rapidly than any technological advance in medical history, filmless hospital is changing the clinical and business aspects of radiology practice by delivering substantial cost savings, improved efficiency and quality, and greater access in an era of high demand and severely constrained resources. Systems are available in many variations, from mini-PACS to hospital-wide or enterprise-wide PACS. However, among the variations, the basic structure of a PACS is similar as shown in Figure 1.
Chapter Preview
Top

Introduction

More rapidly than any technological advance in medical history, filmless hospital is changing the clinical and business aspects of radiology practice by delivering substantial cost savings, improved efficiency and quality, and greater access in an era of high demand and severely constrained resources. Systems are available in many variations, from mini-PACS to hospital-wide or enterprise-wide PACS. However, among the variations, the basic structure of a PACS is similar as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1.

Schematic diagram of a filmless hospital

Top

Design Of A Filmless Hospital

Computer Network Within A Hospital (Local Area Network)

In most cases the local area network (LAN) for image transfer is better to be isolated from the hospital network. This is not saying that there is no inter-communication because there must be a bridge between the two. The radiology imaging network must function independently of all other networks. The image network can’t afford to compete for space on any other information network that will not only slow down but could shut down.

Today, three types of computer network are used in a hospital for PACS. They are fast Ethernet, gigabit Ethernet, and optical fibre.

Fast Ethernet is a collective term for a number of Ethernet standards that carry traffic at the nominal rate of 100 Mbit/s, against the original Ethernet speed of 10 Mbit/s. Of the 100 megabit Ethernet standards 100baseTX is by far the most common and is supported by the vast majority of Ethernet hardware currently produced. Full duplex fast Ethernet is sometimes referred to as “200 Mbit/s” though this is somewhat misleading as that level of improvement will only be achieved if traffic patterns are symmetrical. Fast Ethernet was introduced in 1995 and remained the fastest version of Ethernet for three years before being superseded by gigabit Ethernet.

Gigabit Ethernet is a term describing various technologies for transmitting Ethernet frames at a rate of a gigabit per second, as defined by the IEEE 802.3-2005 standard. Half duplex gigabit links connected through hubs are allowed by the specification but in the marketplace full duplex with switches is the norm.

Optical fibre uses a near-infrared (NIR) light wavelength transmitted via two strands of Multi-mode optical fibre, one for receive(RX) and the other for transmit(TX). Optical fibre is specified to work over a long distance of up to 20 km.

Complete Chapter List

Search this Book:
Reset
Table of Contents
Chapter 1
Introduction  (pages 1-27)
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
Picture archiving and communications system (PACS) is a filmless and computerized method of communicating and storing medical image data such as... Sample PDF
Introduction
$37.50
Chapter 2
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
The protection of information for a healthcare organization, in any form, while in storage, processing, or transport, from being available to any... Sample PDF
ISO 27000 Information Security Management System
$37.50
Chapter 3
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
PACS disasters can, and do, appear in a variety of forms including storage hard disk failure, file corruption, network breakdown, and server... Sample PDF
High Availability Technologies for PACS
$37.50
Chapter 4
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
Fundamental to ISO 27000 (ISO/IEC 27001:2005, 2005) is the concept of an information security management system (ISMS). The information security... Sample PDF
Implementation of Information Security Management System (ISMS)
$37.50
Chapter 5
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
Filmless hospital is transforming at an unprecedented rate. Physicians, nurses, clinicians, pharmacists, radiologists, emergency departments, local... Sample PDF
Planning for a Filmless Hospital
$37.50
Chapter 6
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
More rapidly than any technological advance in medical history, filmless hospital is changing the clinical and business aspects of radiology... Sample PDF
Design of a Filmless Hospital
$37.50
Chapter 7
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
A PACS has tremendous benefits (Bryan, Weatherburn, Watkins, Buxton, 1999) and values outside of radiology as well as internally. The biggest... Sample PDF
Implementation of Filmless Hospital
$37.50
Chapter 8
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
As PACS gains widespread use, the importance of Quality Control (QC), Quality Assurance (QA), and Business Continuity Plan (BCP) in PACS is rising.... Sample PDF
Quality Control, Quality Assurance, and Business Continuity Plan in PACS
$37.50
Chapter 9
PACS Quality Dimensions  (pages 140-153)
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
A large number of studies have attempted to identify the factors that contribute to good PACS quality, such as that shown by Reiner et al (2003).... Sample PDF
PACS Quality Dimensions
$37.50
Chapter 10
Customer Oriented PACS  (pages 154-169)
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
During the early development phase of PACS, its implementation was mainly a matter of the radiology department. This is changing rapidly, and PACS... Sample PDF
Customer Oriented PACS
$37.50
Chapter 11
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
Nowadays it is hard to think of any applications in modern society in which electronic systems do not play a significant role. In aerospace and... Sample PDF
Design for PACS Reliability
$37.50
Chapter 12
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
There are some medical errors for which preventability is rarely questioned. These include medical errors such as wrong site surgery, wrong... Sample PDF
PACS Failure Mode and Effects
$37.50
Chapter 13
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
Economically speaking, it is interesting to see that over the years, the question as to whether PACS is cost-justifiable has not been easier to... Sample PDF
PACS Network Traffic Control
$37.50
Chapter 14
Human Factors and Culture  (pages 225-243)
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
Human factors engineering (HFE) is the science of designing systems to fit human capabilities and limitations. These include limitations in... Sample PDF
Human Factors and Culture
$37.50
Chapter 15
PACS Monitoring  (pages 244-263)
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
The present study advocates the application of statistical process control (SPC) as a performance monitoring tool for a PACS. The objective of... Sample PDF
PACS Monitoring
$37.50
Chapter 16
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
To illustrate the benefits of implementing QM in PACS, a successful case based on the Six Sigma approach is given below. It involves a project... Sample PDF
Quality Management Benefits
$37.50
Chapter 17
Epilogue  (pages 288-297)
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
Today’s filmless radiology through PACS provides greater speed and superior image quality. However, when workflow is encumbered by inefficiencies... Sample PDF
Epilogue
$37.50
Appendix A
Appendix B
Appendix C
About the Authors