Design and Implementation of an Event-Based RFID Middleware

Design and Implementation of an Event-Based RFID Middleware

Angelo Cucinotta (University of Messina, Italy), Antonino Longo Minnolo (University of Messina, Italy) and Antonio Puliafito (University of Messina, Italy)
Copyright: © 2013 |Pages: 22
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-2080-3.ch006
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The downward trend in the cost of RFID technology is producing a strong impact on the industrial world that is using such powerful technology in order to rethink and optimize most of the existing business processes. In this sense, the chipless technology is playing a key role to facilitate the adoption of RFID in enterprises. All this implies the use of solutions that simplify the adoption of the continuously evolving RFID technology and allow keeping a high-level vision versus the specific technical details. In brief, it is mandatory to abstract the technological level and makes transparent the physical devices to the application level. The widespread use of the RFID technology also produces a large volume of data from many objects scattered everywhere, that have to be managed. In these complex scenarios, the RFID middleware represents an ideal solution that favors the technology integration, reducing costs for application development and introducing real benefits to the business processes. In this chapter, the authors describe the main features of our event-based RFID middleware and its powerful architecture. Their middleware is able to assure an effective process of technological abstraction, switching from a vision linked to the specific issues of interfacing devices (chipless tags, readers, sensor networks, GPS, WiFi, etc.) to the management of the event generated by each device. In brief, “event-based” means to integrate the management logic of different devices.
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A very important innovation is the possibility for the user to customize the event-response of the system and to adapt its behavior to changing working conditions. An example of the adoption of chipless RFID for document flow management is presented with emphasis on the technological solutions adopted and on the derived benefits. RFID is a very promising wireless technology that will strongly impact on everyday life in several fields such as retail, supply chain management, document management, access control, healthcare and so on. In general, RFID identifies a plethora of heterogeneous location and identification technologies ranging from wireless identification tags to sensors networks and GPS. One of the main opportunities for RFID is the tagging of all things to create a global network of physical objects, the so-called Internet of Things (IoT). To accomplish this result it is necessary to count on very inexpensive tag, and some printed and chipless RFID technologies have demonstrated the potential to achieve this goal. Recent statistics show how the potential of RFID technology is influencing the commercial interests. For example, in the next ten years we will see a rapid gain of the market and in particular of the printed and chipless RFID tags.

The chipless tag is a particular RFID tag that does not contain a silicon chip. It represents a new frontier of RFID technology and at the same time an opportunity that could open a new scenarios as it could be printed directly on the products and packaging for less than 0.1 cents each. Also, chipless tags are smaller and less obtrusive than RF chips and can be easily embedded in products like a paper sheet. In addition, the readers for chipless tags are similar in size and cost to barcode readers. In the near future a progressive replacement of the 2D barcode with chipless tags could be hypothesized because they offer several advantages. Besides the known advantages such as the identification of the object without the requirement to be in line-of-sight or the possibility to hide the RFID tag inside a container (envelope, paper, etc.), the low cost of the chipless tags has to be considered.

The Internet of Things and the broad diffusion of many different RFID technologies for tagging a wide range of objects such as consumer products in supply chains or in other applications (theft deterrence, counterfeit detection, etc.), will produce very complex scenarios and a big amount of data that have to be managed. In order to take advantage from the potential of each technology, to properly manage a big amount of data and then to obtain more effective solutions and services, effort has to be devoted to develop a middleware layer that glues technical hardware aspects and software services. For instance, mobility, identification and localisation are very important issues, as from the position of a user or of an object several implications may arise such as the capability to provide targeted services, optimize paths, increase safety, etc.

In this chapter we intend to present our work in the creation of an “Event-based” RFID Middleware for the automatic identification of objects in several heterogeneous contexts. This middleware provides an effective abstraction of the technological level, facilitating the integration process with company IT systems, reducing costs and improving the effectiveness of business processes. In order to achieve such goals, it was built using a modular and flexible software architecture based on the state-of-the-art technologies such as SOA-Service Oriented Architecture (WS, REST, HTTP), Enterprise Service Bus (XMPP, JMS) and Multichannel Communication (Jabber, VoIP, SMS, MMS).

Our work resulted in the creation of a commercially available product, known as the WhereX© middleware. This product was realized in the Wireless RFID Laboratory of University of Messina and commercialized by Inquadro s.r.l., a spin-off company of the University of Messina. We will present our design choices and implementation details and describe a real case that will enable to understand how WhereX can assure high levels of flexibility, speed up services development and simplify processes integration. In particular, we will describe a software application for workflow management of paper documents through chipless rfid tags is also presented.

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Nemai Chandra Karmakar
Chapter 1
Morshed U. Chowdhury, Biplob R. Ray
Remote technologies are changing our way of life. The radio frequency identification (RFID) system is a new technology which uses the open air to... Sample PDF
Security Risks/Vulnerability in a RFID System and Possible Defenses
Chapter 2
Joarder Kamruzzaman, A. K. M. Azad, Nemai Chandra Karmakar, Gour Karmakar, Bala Srinivasan
Security and privacy protection are very critical requirements for the widespread deployment of RFID technologies for commercial applications. In... Sample PDF
Security and Privacy in RFID Systems
Chapter 3
Peter Darcy, Bela Stantic, Abdul Sattar
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) refers to wireless technology that is used to seamlessly and automatically track various amounts of items... Sample PDF
The Evolution of Intelligent Classifiers into an Integrated Approach to Correct RFID Anomalies
Chapter 4
Vasileios Lakafosis, Edward Gebara, Manos M. Tentzeris, Gerald DeJean, Darko Kirovski
Counterfeiting affects many different sectors of the world trade, including the pharmaceutical and the aerospace industries, and, therefore, its... Sample PDF
Near Field Authentication
Chapter 5
Edgeware in RFID Systems  (pages 101-109)
Geoffrey Ramadan
An RFID system is an enabling technology encompassing both hardware and software. This chapter presents a software interface that integrates both... Sample PDF
Edgeware in RFID Systems
Chapter 6
Angelo Cucinotta, Antonino Longo Minnolo, Antonio Puliafito
The downward trend in the cost of RFID technology is producing a strong impact on the industrial world that is using such powerful technology in... Sample PDF
Design and Implementation of an Event-Based RFID Middleware
Chapter 7
Ching-Nung Yang, Jyun-Yan He, Yu-Ching Kun
A tag collision problem (or missed reads) in Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system happens when multiple tags respond to a reader... Sample PDF
RFID Tag Anti-Collision Protocols
Chapter 8
Prapassara Pupunwiwat, Bela Stantic
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is considered an emerging technology for advancing a wide range of applications, such as supply chain... Sample PDF
Managing Tag Collision in RFID Data Streams using Smart Tag Anti-Collision Techniques
Chapter 9
Salvador Ricardo Meneses González, Roberto Linares y Miranda
In this chapter, propagation channel aspects in current passive UHF RFID systems applied for automatic vehicular identification (AVI) are presented... Sample PDF
Passive UHF RFID Technology Applied to Automatic Vehicle Identification: Antennas, Propagation Models and Some Problems Relative to Electromagnetic Compatibility
Chapter 10
Ming K. Lim
Radio-frequency identification technology (RFID) is a popular modern technology proven to deliver a range of value-added benefits to achieve system... Sample PDF
Exploring Value-Added Applications of Chipless RFID Systems to Enhance Wider Adoption
Chapter 11
Michele Maffia, Luca Mainetti, Luigi Patrono, Emanuela Urso
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is going to play a crucial role as auto-identification technology in a wide range of applications such as... Sample PDF
Potential Impact of RFID-Based Tracing Systems on the Integrity of Pharmaceutical Products
Chapter 12
Yang Yang, Abdur Rahim, Nemai Chandra Karmakar
Sleep apnea is a severe, potentially life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention. In this chapter, a novel wireless sleep... Sample PDF
5.8 GHz Portable Wireless Monitoring System for Sleep Apnea Diagnosis in Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN) Using Active RFID and MIMO Technology
Chapter 13
Emran Md Amin, Nemai Chandra Karmakar
A novel approach for non-invasive radiometric Partial Discharge (PD) detection and localization of faulty power apparatuses in switchyards using... Sample PDF
Chipless RFID Sensor for High Voltage Condition Monitoring
Chapter 14
Subhas C. Mukhopadhyay
The chapter presents the design and development of very low cost planar sensors and sensing systems for measuring fat contents in meat, leather... Sample PDF
Recent Advancements in Smart Sensors and Sensing Technology
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