Designing and Evaluating In-Car User-Interfaces

Designing and Evaluating In-Car User-Interfaces

Gary Burnett (University of Nottingham, UK)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-871-0.ch014
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The introduction of computing and communications technologies within cars raises a range of novel human-computer interaction (HCI) issues. In particular, it is critical to understand how user-interfaces within cars can best be designed to account for the severe physical, perceptual and cognitive constraints placed on users by the driving context. This chapter introduces the driving situation and explains the range of computing systems being introduced within cars and their associated user-interfaces. The overall human-focused factors that designers must consider for this technology are raised. Furthermore, the range of methods (e.g., use of simulators, instrumented vehicles) available to designers of in-car user-interfaces are compared and contrasted. Specific guidance for one key system, vehicle navigation, is provided in a case study discussion. To conclude, overall trends in the development of in-car userinterfaces are discussed and the research challenges are raised.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Driving Simulators: Provide a safe, controlled and cost-effective virtual environment in which research and training issues related to driving can be considered. Simulators vary considerably in their fidelity (i.e., the extent to which they replicate aspects of real driving).

Underload: (Due to in-car computing systems) occurs when automation of core driving tasks (such as steering, braking, etc.) has led to a situation in which driving performance has deteriorated. This may have arisen because the driver has reduced awareness of other road users, has changed their behavior in negative ways or has inferior skills/knowledge in driving.

Overload: (Due to in-car computing systems) occurs when a driver’s information processing resources are overwhelmed and performance on primary driving tasks inevitably suffers.

Keystroke Level Model: Is an established HCI method used to predict expert’s task times with a user-interface. It can be used with in-car user-interfaces to predict static task time, that is, the time taken to achieve tasks in a stationary vehicle. Recently, the KLM has been extended to predict visual demand measures related to the occlusion protocol.

The Occlusion Protocol: Is a user trial method used in the design and evaluation of in-car user-interfaces. Participants typically wear LCD glasses which restrict the visual experience by only enabling short (e.g., 1.5 seconds) chunks of visual attention with an in-car user interface. Measures related to the visual demand of an interface can be established.

Driver Distraction: Occurs when there is a delay by the driver in the recognition of information necessary to safely maintain the lateral and longitudinal control of the vehicle. Distraction may arise due to some event, activity, object or person, within or outside the vehicle that compels or tends to induce the driver’s shifting attention away from fundamental driving tasks. Distraction may compromise the driver’s auditory, biomechanical, cognitive or visual faculties, or combinations thereof (Pettitt & Burnett, 2005).

In-Car Computing Systems: Provide information to support the driving task or control some aspect/s of the driving task. In-car computing systems may also provide information and/or services that are unrelated to driving.

Complete Chapter List

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Matt Jones
Joanna Lumsden
Joanna Lumsden
Chapter 1
Jeni Paay
This chapter proposes a way of informing creative design of mobile information systems by acknowledging the value of ethnography in HCI and tackling... Sample PDF
From Ethnography to Interface Design
Chapter 2
Anxo Cereijo Roibás, Stephen Johnson
This chapter discusses research initially supported by the Vodafone Group Foundation and the British Royal Academic of Engineering, and subsequently... Sample PDF
Use of Experimental Ethno-Methods to Evaluate the User Experience with Mobile Interactive Multimedia Systems
Chapter 3
Martin Colbert
This chapter seeks opportunities to use mobile technology to improve human mobility. To this end, the chapter reports a diary study of university... Sample PDF
Problems Rendezvousing: A Diary Study
Chapter 4
Hanna Stelmaszewska, Bob Fields, Ann Blandford
This chapter reports on a qualitative study into people’s use of camera phones for social interaction in co-present settings. The study examined... Sample PDF
User Experience of Camera Phones in Social Contexts
Chapter 5
Hyowon Lee, Cathal Gurrin, Gareth J.F. Jones, Alan F. Smeaton
This chapter explores some of the technological elements that will greatly enhance user interaction with personal photos on mobile devices in the... Sample PDF
Interaction Design for Personal Photo Management on a Mobile Device
Chapter 6
Amy K. Karlson, Benjamin B. Bederson, Jose L. Contreras-Vidal
Mobile phones are poised to be the world’s most pervasive technology, already outnumbering land lines, personal computers, and even people in some... Sample PDF
Understanding One-Handed Use of Mobile Devices
Chapter 7
Eija Kaasinen
Personal mobile devices are increasingly being used as platforms for interactive services. User acceptance of mobile services is not just based on... Sample PDF
User Acceptance of Mobile Services
Chapter 8
Martina Ziefle, Susanne Bay
Mobile devices have proliferated into most working and private areas and broad user groups have access to mobile technology. This has considerable... Sample PDF
Transgenerational Designs in Mobile Technology
Chapter 9
Susanne Bay, Martina Ziefle
In usability research it is a common practice to take young and healthy university students as participants for usability evaluations. This chapter... Sample PDF
Learning-Disabled Children: A Disregarded User Group
Chapter 10
Chris Barber, James Knight
In this chapter wearable computers are considered from the perspective of human factors. The basic argument is that wearable computers can be... Sample PDF
Human Factors Problems of Wearable Computers
Chapter 11
The Garment as Interface  (pages 176-186)
Sabine Seymour
This chapter focuses on the surface of a smart garment as a dynamic interface. The use of the garment’s surface as an interactive display opens up... Sample PDF
The Garment as Interface
Chapter 12
Eleni Christopoulou
This chapter presents how the use of context can support user interaction in mobile applications. It argues that context in mobile applications can... Sample PDF
Context as a Necessity in Mobile Applications
Chapter 13
Anind K. Dey, Jonna Häkkilä
Context-awareness is a maturing area within the field of ubiquitous computing. It is particularly relevant to the growing sub-field of mobile... Sample PDF
Context-Awareness and Mobile Devices
Chapter 14
Gary Burnett
The introduction of computing and communications technologies within cars raises a range of novel human-computer interaction (HCI) issues. In... Sample PDF
Designing and Evaluating In-Car User-Interfaces
Chapter 15
Bent Schmidt-Nielsen, Bret Harsham, Bhiksha Raj, Clifton Forlines
In this chapter we discuss a variety of topics relating to speech-based user interfaces for use in an automotive environment. We begin by presenting... Sample PDF
Speech-Based UI Design for the Automobile
Chapter 16
Nikolaos Tselios, Ioanna Papadimitriou, Dimitrios Raptis, Nikoletta Yiannoutsou, Vassilis Komis, Nikolaos Avouris
This chapter discusses the design challenges of mobile museum learning applications. Museums are undoubtedly rich in learning opportunities to be... Sample PDF
Design for Mobile Learning in Museums
Chapter 17
Siu Cheung Kong
This chapter introduces the migration of a Web-based cognitive tool (CT) for the generation of procedural knowledge about mathematical fractions... Sample PDF
Collaborative Learning in a Mobile Technology Supported Classroom
Chapter 18
Hyungsung Park, Young Kyun Baek, David Gibson
This chapter introduces the application of an artificial intelligence technique to a mobile educational device in order to provide a learning... Sample PDF
Design of an Adaptive Mobile Learning Management System
Chapter 19
Nikola Mitrovic, Eduardo Mena, Jose Alberto Royo
Mobility for graphical user interfaces (GUIs) is a challenging problem, as different GUIs need to be constructed for different device capabilities... Sample PDF
Adaptive Interfaces in Mobile Environments: An Approach Based on Mobile Agents
Chapter 20
Michael J. O’Grady, Gregory M.P. O’Hare
In this chapter, the practical issue of realizing a necessary intelligence quotient for conceiving intelligent user interfaces (IUIs) on mobile... Sample PDF
Intelligent User Interfaces for Mobile Computing
Chapter 21
Yang Li, Scott Klemmer, James A. Landay
We introduce informal prototyping tools as an important way to speed up the early-stage design of mobile interactions, by lowering the barrier to... Sample PDF
Tools for Rapidly Prototyping Mobile Interactions
Chapter 22
Emmanuel Dubois, Wafaa Abou Moussa, Cédric Bach, Nelly de Bonnefoy
Interactive systems are no longer expected to be used in confined and predefined places. By increasingly taking advantage of the physical... Sample PDF
Modelling and Simulation of Mobile Mixed Systems
Chapter 23
Ioannis D. Zaharakis, Achilles D. Kameas
Nowadays, our living environments already provide ubiquitous network connectivity and are populated by an increasing number of artefacts (objects... Sample PDF
Engineering Emergent Ecologies of Interacting Artefacts
Chapter 24
Rafael Ballagas, Michael Rohs, Jennifer G. Sheridan, Jan Borchers
The mobile phone is the first truly pervasive computer. In addition to its core communications functionality, it is increasingly used for... Sample PDF
The Design Space of Ubiquitous Mobile Input
Chapter 25
Text Entry  (pages 408-425)
Mark David Dunlop, Michelle Montgomery Masters
Text entry on mobile devices (e.g., phones and PDAs) has been a research challenge since devices shrank below laptop size: mobile devices are simply... Sample PDF
Text Entry
Chapter 26
Min Lin, Andrew Sears, Steven Herbst, Yanfang Liu
This chapter presents a case study of the redesign of the mobile phone keypad graphics that support the Motorola iTap™ stroke-based Chinese input... Sample PDF
Improving Stroke-Based Input of Chinese Characters
Chapter 27
Louise E. Moser, P.M. Melliar-Smith
The use of a voice interface, along with textual, graphical, video, tactile, and audio interfaces, can improve the experience of the user of a... Sample PDF
Voice-Enabled User Interfaces for Mobile Devices
Chapter 28
Dong Yu, Li Deng
Multimodal user interface (MUI) allows users to interact with a computer system through multiple human- computer communication channels or... Sample PDF
Speech-Centric Multimodal User Interface Design in Mobile Technology
Chapter 29
Parisa Eslambolchilar, Andrew Crossan, Roderick Murray-Smith, Sara Dalzel-Job, Frank Pollick
In this work, we investigate the use of audio and haptic feedback to augment the display of a mobile device controlled by tilt input. The questions... Sample PDF
Model-Based Target Sonification in Small Screen Devices: Perception and Action
Chapter 30
Panu Korpipää, Jukka Linjama, Juha Kela, Tapani Rantakokko
Gesture control of mobile devices is an emerging user interaction modality. Large-scale deployment has been delayed by two main technical... Sample PDF
Unobtrusive Movement Interaction for Mobile Devices
Chapter 31
Enrico Costanza, Samuel A. Inverso, Rebecca Allen, Pattie Maes
Mobile interfaces should be designed to enable subtle, discreet, and unobtrusive interaction. Biosignals and, in particular, the electromyographic... Sample PDF
EMG for Subtle, Intimate Interfaces
Chapter 32
Tolga Capin, Antonio Haro
This chapter introduces an approach for user interaction on mobile devices, focusing on camera-enabled mobile phones. A user interacts with an... Sample PDF
Mobile Camera-Based User Interaction
Chapter 33
Andrea Sanna, Fabrizio Lamberti
Recent improvements in technology of last generation mobile devices (smartphones, Personal Digital Assistants, Ultra-Mobile PCs) have opened up... Sample PDF
3-D Visualization on Mobile Devices
Chapter 34
Thorsten Büring
Due to advances in hardware technologies, mobile devices are increasingly capable of handling largescale data sets. While this development broadens... Sample PDF
Navigation Support for Exploring Starfield Displays on Personal Digital Assistants
Chapter 35
Masanori Sugimoto
Mobile devices have so far been personal tools. With their evolution of increased functionality, however, these devices have begun to be used in a... Sample PDF
Projected Displays of Mobile Devices for Collaboration
Chapter 36
Rock Leung, Joanna Lumsden
While mobile devices offer many innovative possibilities to help increase the standard of living for individuals with disabilities and other special... Sample PDF
Designing Mobile Technologies for Individuals with Disabilities
Chapter 37
Katie A. Siek
The global population of older people is steadily growing and challenging researchers in the human computer interaction community to design... Sample PDF
Mobile Design for Older Adults
Chapter 38
Mark Matthews, Gavin Doherty, David Coyle, John Sharry
The advent of mobile technology has brought computing to a wide range of new contexts, some of which are highly sensitive and place new constraints... Sample PDF
Designing Mobile Applications to Support Mental Health Interventions
Chapter 39
Francesco Bellotti, Riccardo Berta, Alessandro De Gloria, Massimiliano Margarone
Diffusion of radio frequency identification (RFID) promises to boost the added value of assistive technologies for mobile users. Visually impaired... Sample PDF
Widely Usable User Interfaces on Mobile Devices with RFID
Chapter 40
Shigueo Nomura, Takayuki Shiose, Hiroshi Kawakami, Osamu Katai, Keiji Yamanaka
We developed a concept of interfaces using nonspeech audio for building wearable devices to support visually impaired persons. The main purpose is... Sample PDF
Toward a Novel Human Interface for Conceptualizing Spatial Information in Non-Speech Audio
Chapter 41
Florence Gaunet, Xavier Briffault
The two-fold aim of this chapter is to present the design process of an interface for a mobile navigational aid for blind pedestrians and a set of... Sample PDF
A Navigational Aid for Blind Pedestrians Designed with User- and Activity-Centered Approaches
Chapter 42
Julio Abascal, Borja Bonail, Daniel Cagigas, Nestor Garay, Luis Gardeazabal
This chapter introduces the main trends in the design of interfaces for smart wheelchairs. It stresses the importance of taking into account their... Sample PDF
Trends in Adaptive Interface Design for Smart Wheelchairs
Chapter 43
Chris Barber
In this chapter the evaluation of human computer interaction (HCI) with mobile technologies is considered. The ISO 9241 notion of ‘context of use’... Sample PDF
Evaluating Mobile Human-Computer Interaction
Chapter 44
Regina Bernhaupt, Kristijan Mihalic, Marianna Obrist
Evaluating mobile applications and devices is particularly challenging given the variability of users, uses, and environments involved. This chapter... Sample PDF
Usability Evaluation Methods for Mobile Applications
Chapter 45
Jan Willem Streefkerk, Myra P. van Esch-Bussemakers, Mark A. Neerincx, Rosemarijn Looije
Evaluation refines and validates design solutions in order to establish adequate user experiences. For mobile user interfaces in dynamic and... Sample PDF
Evaluating Context-Aware Mobile Interfaces for Professionals
Chapter 46
Enrico Bertini, Tiziana Catarci, Alan Dix, Silvia Gabrielli, Stephen Kimani, Giuseppe Santucci
Heuristic evaluation has proven popular for desktop and Web interfaces, both in practical design and as a research topic. Compared to full user... Sample PDF
Appropriating Heuristic Evaluation Methods for Mobile Computing
Chapter 47
Janet C. Read
This chapter describes Wizard of Oz studies and gives a historical view that includes a summary of the literature in which several studies that used... Sample PDF
Using Wizard of Oz to Evaluate Mobile Applications
Chapter 48
Vanja Kljajevic
This chapter discusses the idea that using computational cognitive models in usability testing has many benefits over the traditional approaches. It... Sample PDF
Cognitive Models as Usability Testing Tools
Chapter 49
Thomas Alexander, Christopher Schlick, Alexander Sievert, Dieter Leyk
This chapter describes the interdependence between locomotion while walking and human input performance in mobile Human-Computer-Interaction (HCI).... Sample PDF
Assessing Human Mobile Computing Performance by Fitts' Law
Chapter 50
Maria de Fátima Queiroz Vieira Turnell, José Eustáquio Rangel de Queiroz, Danilo de Sousa Ferreira
This chapter presents a method for the evaluation of user interfaces for mobile applications. The method is based upon an approach that combines... Sample PDF
Multilayered Approach to Evaluate Mobile User Interfaces
Chapter 51
Jaakko T. Lehikoinen
Privacy is one of the most essential topics to be investigated when assessing user acceptance of new applications and services enabling disclosure... Sample PDF
Theory and Application of the Privacy Regulation Model
Chapter 52
Dong-Han Ham, Jeongyun Heo, Peter Fossick, William Wong, Sanghyun Park, Chiwon Song, Mike Bradley
This chapter aims at developing a framework and model for identifying and organizing usability factors of mobile phones. Although some studies have... Sample PDF
Framework and Model of Usability Factors of Mobile Phones
Chapter 53
Kaikkonen, Kaikkonen, Anne, Anne, Aki Kekäläinen, Mikael Cankar, Titti Kallio
The phenomena a usability test in the field reveals are different from those uncovered in a classical usability test conducted in a laboratory... Sample PDF
Will Laboratory Test Results be Valid in Mobile Contexts?
Chapter 54
Murray Crease, Robert Longworth
The evaluation of mobile applications is increasingly taking into account the users of such applications’ mobility (e.g., Mizobuchi, Chignell, &... Sample PDF
Mobile Evaluations in a Lab Environment
Chapter 55
Andrew Crossan, Roderick Murray-Smith, Stephen Brewster, Bojan Musizza
Instrumented usability analysis involves the use of sensors during a usability study which provide observations from which the evaluator can infer... Sample PDF
Instrumented Usability Analysis for Mobile Devices
Chapter 56
Gustav Öquist
Readability is important for mobile usability since text is the preferred way of dealing with information over distances in time and space. Making... Sample PDF
Three Eye Movement Studies of Mobile Readability
Chapter 57
Did You See That?  (pages 972-981)
Murray Crease, Joanna Lumsden
The development of appropriate lab-based evaluation techniques for mobile technologies requires continued research attention. In particular... Sample PDF
Did You See That?
Chapter 58
Rune T. Høegh, Jesper Kjeldskov, Mikael B. Skov, Jan Stage
Evaluating mobile technologies “in the real world” is hard. It is challenging to capture key situations of use, hard to apply established techniques... Sample PDF
A Field Laboratory for Evaluating in Situ
Chapter 59
Adrian Stoica, Georgios Fiotakis, Dimitrios Raptis, Ioanna Papadimitriou, Vassilis Komis, Nikolaos Avouris
This chapter presents a usability evaluation method for context aware mobile applications deployed in semi-public spaces that involve collaboration... Sample PDF
Field Evaluation of Collaborative Mobile Applications
Chapter 60
Kater Oakley, Gitte Lindgaard, Peter Kroeger, John Miller, Earl Bryenton, Paul Hébert
This chapter reports on a case study linking several technology devices that monitor a range of vital signs in patients recently discharged to a... Sample PDF
UI Design for Mobile Technology in a Closed Environment
Chapter 61
Shwetak N. Patel, Khai N. Truong, Gillian R. Hayes, Giovanni Iachello, Julie A. Kientz, Gregory D. Abowd
The ephemeral nature of sound can be problematic when people cannot recall something they heard. Motivated by everyday conversational breakdowns, a... Sample PDF
Designing a Ubiquitous Audio-Based Memory Aid
Chapter 62
Saturnino Luz, Masood Masoodian
Multimedia data such as music and video are key forces behind the widespread use of mobile devices today. However, the usefulness of mobile access... Sample PDF
Visualisation of Meeting Records on Mobile Devices
Chapter 63
Jason T. Black, Lois Wright Hawkes
This chapter presents a tool for collaborative e-learning using handheld devices that incorporates pair communication via text and speech input. It... Sample PDF
A Proposed Tool for Mobile Collaborative Reading
Chapter 64
Tiong T. Goh, Kinshuk, Nian-Shing Chen
The main objective of this chapter is to present a comparative evaluation between two e-learning systems from the end user (learner) perspective.... Sample PDF
Evaluating Learner Satisfaction in a Multiplatform E-Learning System
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