The Detection of Abnormal Breathing Activity by Vision Analysis in Application to Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Ching Wei Wang (University of Lincoln, UK), Amr Ahmed (University of Lincoln, UK) and Andrew Hunter (University of Lincoln, UK)
Copyright: © 2008
Obstructive Sleep Apnea is increasingly seen as a common and important condition, contributing to sleep disturbance and consequential daytime sleepiness. This has potentially serious consequences for the individual, employers, and society as a whole. Apnea refers to short spells when breathing stops. In obstructive sleep apnea, the throat constricts during sleep, preventing breathing; the apnea episode often ends with a loud snore and/or gasp. Such an event is sufficient to open the throat muscles to allow breathing, and the patient usually falls asleep again so quickly that the event is not remembered. This cycle repeats itself throughout the night as the muscles relax and the throat blocks again, and the frequency of the episode is used to determine the severity of the syndrome.
Key Terms in this Chapter
Thermal Imaging: An analogue pictorial representation or visualization of temperature differences.
Polysomnography (PSG): A diagnostic test in which a number of sensor leads are placed on the patient during sleep to record brain activity, eye, jaw muscle, leg muscle movements, airflow, respiratory effort, heart rhythm, and oxygen saturation
Hypopneas: Reductions in airflow or respiratory effort during sleep.
Infrared: Infrared light lies between the visible and microwave portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. It is used in night-vision equipment when there is insufficient visible light available.
Sleep Apnea: A sleep disorder that causes breathing to stop during sleep for anywhere from 10 seconds to several minutes.
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Therapy (CPAP): A therapy that delivers air into the patient’s airway through a specially designed nasal mask or pillows. It is considered the most effective nonsurgical treatment for the alleviation of snoring and obstructive sleep apnea.
Oxygen Saturation: A measure of how much oxygen the blood is carrying as a percentage of the maximum it could carry. It can be obtained from pulse oximetry.