Detection of Gait Patterns in Challenging Environments

Detection of Gait Patterns in Challenging Environments

Kate Lynch (Melbourne University, Australia), Daniel T.H. Lai (Victoria University, Canada) and Rezaul Begg (Melbourne University, Australia)
Copyright: © 2008 |Pages: 9
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-889-5.ch054
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One in three individuals over the age of 65 years (elderly) will fall at least once a year (James, 1993). This probability increases to one in two adults over 80 years (DHA, 2005). Consequently, gait modifications associated with ageing have been linked with increased falls’ probability (Berg, Alessio, Mills, & Tong, 1997; Lord, Sherrington, & Menz, 2001). Despite an increasing research interest in recent times into the aetiology of falls, particularly in the elderly (>65 years), falls continue to be a major public health concern in Australia and worldwide. Fall-related injuries are the leading cause of accidental death in the elderly population, and account for the largest cause of hospitalisation for this population (Lord et al., 2001), with many elderly individuals experiencing physical, social, or functional ramifications following a fall. Consequently, the economic cost of falls to the public health system is escalating, with the total cost of fall injuries reported to be higher than road traffic injuries (DOH, 2004). The majority of falls associated costs include physician consultation, hospital stays, nursing homecare, rehabilitation, medical equipment, home modification and care, community based services, and prescription drugs and administration (DOH, 2004; Lord et al., 2001). Healthcare and related costs associated with falls are expected to double over the next 50 years (Close & Lord, 2006).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Falls: To leave a standing or erect position suddenly, whether voluntarily or not, and succumb to either a sitting, kneeling, or lying position.

Computational Intelligence: The fusion of machine learning paradigms and computer science resulting in power classifiers which learn data relationships.

Swing: The period of time between toe off to the strike of the same foot during gait.

Elderly: Adults over the age of 65 years.

Gait: A particular way or manner of walking.

Stance: The period of time when the foot is in contact with the ground during gait.

Minimum Toe Clearance: The measurement between the lowest point of the foot (most commonly toe) to the gradient of the walking surface.

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Traditionally medical data were typically collected and stored as records in physician’s offices and in hospitals. Often the data were recorded... Sample PDF
Medical Privacy and the National Health Information Network Initiative
Chapter 109
Medical Search Engines  (pages 873-881)
Bob Badgett, Suresh Chalasani, Rajendra V. Boppana, Jacqueline A. Pugh
Twenty years ago, researchers identified the difficulties physicians have in answering the clinical questions that arise during medical care... Sample PDF
Medical Search Engines
Chapter 110
Nilmini Wickramasinghe, Giuseppe Turchetti, Barbara Labella, Andrea Moglia, Arianna Menciassi, Paolo Dario
The generally accepted treatment for Hirschsprung’s disease is through surgical intervention. Currently, the recognized techniques include the... Sample PDF
Minimal Invasive Surgery and Therapy (MIS and MIT) in Hirschsprung's Patients
Chapter 111
Masoud Mohammadian, Ric Jentzsch
The cost of health care continues to be a world wide issue. Research continues into ways and how the utilization of evolving technologies can be... Sample PDF
A Mobile Computing Framework for Passive RFID Detection System in Health Care
Chapter 112
Mary Ann Keogh Hoss, Harm-Jan Steenhuis
Medical tourism has been around for quite some time but only recently has it become more of a factor to be considered for US hospitals. Many... Sample PDF
A Model for the Discussion of Medical Tourism
Chapter 113
M. C.J. Schnellen
Little is published about generic models that describe the physic and information process of an emergency department. This paper expounds the... Sample PDF
A Model to Evaluate the Flow of an Emergency Department
Chapter 114
Sándor Miklós Szilágyi, László Szilágyi, Constantin T. Luca, Dragos Cozma, Gabriel Ivanica, Zoltán Benyó
The Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is characterized by an accessory pathway (by-pass tract) between the atria and ventricles that conducts... Sample PDF
Modification of Arruda's Accessory Pathway Localization Method to Improve the Performance of WPW Syndrome Interventions
Chapter 115
Tolga Esat Özkurt, Mingyu Sun, Robert J. Sclabassi
In this article, we propose a novel preprocessing method in the spherical harmonics domain to decompose the MEG signal into specific parts, whose... Sample PDF
Modified Beamspace Method for the Spatial Filtering of Magnetoencephalographic Data
Chapter 116
Stefan M. Graeber, Ansgar Kutscha
Information management (IM) at a health care institution encompasses the management of information, the management of application systems, and the... Sample PDF
Monitoring and Controlling of Healthcare Information Systems (HIS)
Chapter 117
Eugenio Mattei, Giovanni Calcagnini, Michele Triventi, Federica Censi, Pietro Bartolini, Wolfgang Kainz, Howard Bassen
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a widely accepted tool for the diagnosis of a variety of disease states. The presence of a metallic implant... Sample PDF
MRI Induced Heating on Pacemaker Leads
Chapter 118
Markus Belkin, Brian Corbitt, Konrad Peszynski
Today’s information rich and knowledge-based business society relies heavily on Information Technology (IT) and Information Systems (IS) design to... Sample PDF
Multidimensional Modeling in the Health Industry
Chapter 119
Rami N. Khushaba, Adel A. Al-Jumaily
Bio-signals patterns analysis problems have enjoyed a rapid increase in popularity in the past few years. The electromyography (EMG) signal, also... Sample PDF
Myoelectric Control of Prosthetic Devices for Rehabilitation
Chapter 120
Sourabh Bansal
Nanorobotics is a young and a challenging discipline of nanotechnology that is related to the design and simulation of robots or nonbiological... Sample PDF
Nanorobotics: Applications in Bionanotechnology
Chapter 121
Elaine Byrne, Roy D. Johnson
In 2005, the clinical director of the Batho Pele clinic1 in the Gauteng province in South Africa requested the assistance of the Department of... Sample PDF
Networks of Action for Anti Retroviral Treatment
Chapter 122
Ching Wei Wang
One of the most active areas of research in supervised machine learning has been to study methods for constructing good ensembles of classifiers.... Sample PDF
New Ensemble Machine Learning Method for Classification and Prediction on Gene Expression Data
Chapter 123
Juan J. Perez, Enrique Guijarro, Pedro Ortiz, José M. Pons
One of the most important advances in biomedical engineering has been the ability to inspect inside the body without opening it. In this sense... Sample PDF
New Perspectives in Rheoencephalography
Chapter 124
N. Grossman, K. Nikolic, P. Degenaar, C. Toumazou, H. Yang, E. Drakakis
According to the World Health Organisation definition for blindness, that is, visual acuity bellow 3/60 for the best eye on the Snellen scale, there... Sample PDF
A Non-Invasive Approach to the Bionic Eye
Chapter 125
Mohammad Saleh Nambakhsh, M. Shiva
Exchange of databases between hospitals needs efficient and reliable transmission and storage techniques to cut down the cost of health care. This... Sample PDF
A Novel Blind Wavelet Base Watermarking of ECG Signals on Medical Images Using EZW Algorithm
Chapter 126
Maria F. Chan, Yan Song
Cancer is the second leading cause of death behind heart disease in the United States (National Center for Health Statistics, 2006). Various caner... Sample PDF
A Novel Radiotherapy Technique
Chapter 127
Online Nurse Education  (pages 1024-1031)
Jane Klobas, Ciro Sementina, Stefano Renzi
In many countries, healthcare professionals are required to participate annually in compulsory continuing medical education (CME). The effort... Sample PDF
Online Nurse Education
Chapter 128
B. Spyropoulos, M. Botsivaly, A. Tzavaras, K. Koutsourakis
Adapting medical and managerial decision-making (Spyropoulos, 2006a) in the modern home care environment is a cardinal prerequisite, in order to... Sample PDF
Optimization of Medical Supervision, Management, and Reimbursement of Contemporary Home Care
Chapter 129
Reeva Lederman, Rogier van de Wetering, Lucy Firth
This chapter investigates the adequacy of BSC for a holistic evaluation of the workflow impacts of a PACS implementation. It asks whether a... Sample PDF
PACS Contribution to Hospital Strategy via Improved Workflow
Chapter 130
Rajendra V. Boppana, Suresh Chalasani, Bob Badgett, Jacqueline A. Pugh
In this article, we describe a parallel architecture for MEDLINE database integrated with search refinement tools to facilitate accurate and fast... Sample PDF
Parallel Architectures for MEDLINE Search
Chapter 131
Marie-Christine Thaize Challier
It is increasingly recognized that, by introducing healthcare information systems, it may be possible to improve healthcare delivery. Yet... Sample PDF
Patients and Physicians Faced to New Healthcare Systems
Chapter 132
B. Giraldo, A. Garde, C. Arizmendi, R. Jane, I. Diaz, S. Benito
One of the challenges in intensive care is the process of weaning from mechanical ventilation. We studied the differences in respiratory pattern... Sample PDF
Patients on Weaning Trials Classified with Neural Networks and Features Selection
Chapter 133
I. J. Baars, G. G. van Merode
This article reports the results of two studies on the use of standard care processes and IT for planning and control of mental healthcare... Sample PDF
Planning and Control and the Use of Information Technology in Mental Health Care Organizations
Chapter 134
Michael Christopher Gibbons
There is increasing interest in the role of technology in health care and public health. Several researchers have predicted a coming revolution in... Sample PDF
Populomics, an Emerging E-Health Response to Contemporary Healthcare Realities
Chapter 135
Kannan Sethuraman, Devanath Tirupati
Lee, et al. (1997b) state the impact of increased volatility as, “Distorted information from one end of the supply chain to the other can lead to... Sample PDF
Prevalence of Bullwhip Effect in Hospitals
Chapter 136
Abirami Radhakrishnan, Dessa David, Jigish Zaveri
The challenges faced by U.S. health care system are vividly explained in the U.S. Government’s health information technology plan, The U.S. health... Sample PDF
Process Level Benefits of an Electronic Medical Records System
Chapter 137
Nora Ekroos, Erkki Vauramo
In western countries, the so-called demographic time bomb, that is, the ageing of the baby-boom generation, has become one of the most challenging... Sample PDF
Production Management in the Elderly Care Services
Chapter 138
Gervásio Iwens, Hervaldo Sampaio Carval, Talles Marcelo Gonçalves de Andrade Barbosa
According to Barbosa, Sene, Carvalho, da Rocha, Nascimento, and Camapum (2006), two important concepts related to programmability in BSNs are: (i)... Sample PDF
Programming Body Sensor Networks
Chapter 139
B. Dhillon, P. Aspinall, T. Aslam, P. Halpin, A. Vani, P. Byrne, A. Hill, T. Van den Berg
The principal aim of this research proposal was to develop quality of life and relevant visual function criteria to provide a rational decisional... Sample PDF
A Prospective Observational Study of the Determinants of Current Cataract Surgical Selection
Chapter 140
B. A. Garilevich, Y. V. Kudryavtsev, Y. V. Olefir, Y. V. Andrianov, A. E. Rotov
Nowadays the world medical practice widely uses the method of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for treatment of patients with urolithiasis bay... Sample PDF
Prospects for Development of Shock Wave Therapy
Chapter 141
Victoria Hanna, Kannan Sethuraman
In this article, we illustrate the relevance of queuing theory principles to the healthcare sector through a case study of a day surgery unit in a... Sample PDF
Reducing Patient Delays in a Day Surgery Unit of a Hospital
Chapter 142
D. Chon Abraham
Much of healthcare improvement via technology initiatives address gaining physician by-in (Reinertsen, 2005) and does not adequately address... Sample PDF
Reforming Nursing with Information Systems and Technology
Chapter 143
Carlos Gómez, Roberto Hornero, Daniel Abásolo, Alberto Fernández, Javier Escudero
Magnetoencephalograpy (MEG) is a noninvasive technique that allows recording the magnetic fields produced by brain activity. SQUID (Superconducting... Sample PDF
Regularity Analysis of the Magnetoencephalogram Background Activity in Alzheimer's Disease Patients Using Auto Mutual Information
Chapter 144
Ziad O. Abu-Faraj, Habib C. Bou Sleiman, Waleed M. Al Katergi, Jean-Louis D. Heneine, Maya J. Mashaalany
This article describes the design and development of a low-cost eye tracking-based brain-computer interface system for the rehabilitation of the... Sample PDF
A Rehabilitative Eye-Tracking Based Brain-Computer Interface for the Completely Locked-In Patient
Chapter 145
Mitsuhiko Karashima
Human information processing (HIP) performance using the working memory can be assessed by two types of indicator when an HIP task is carried out.... Sample PDF
Relationship Between Performance Error and Human Information Processing
Chapter 146
Murako Saito
The competence of organizational management is required to cope with complexity of technology and diversity of social demands for maintaining good... Sample PDF
Relationship Management Competence and Organizational Performance
Chapter 147
Paolo Soda, Giulio Iannello
In this article, we discuss the use of computerbased systems in microscopy, focusing on cytological images. We initially present recent results on... Sample PDF
The Relevance of Computer-Aided-Diagnosis Systems in Microscopy Applications to Medicine and Biology
Chapter 148
W. F. Lawless, Joseph Wood, Hui-Lien Tung
This case study is of a military medical department research center (MDRC) with access to advanced information systems (IS), yet struggling to... Sample PDF
Restructuring a Military Medical Department Research Center
Chapter 149
A. Dwivedi, T. Butcher
Innovations in information and communication technologies (ICTs) have transformed the manner in which healthcare organizations function.... Sample PDF
RFID as the Critical Factor for Superior Healthcare Delivery
Chapter 150
David C. Wyld
Pharmaceuticals play a more prominent role in American health care than in any other nation. The North American market today comprises 47% of the... Sample PDF
RFID Tagging of Pharmaceuticals
Chapter 151
Béla Paláncz, Levente Kovács, Balázs Benyó, Zoltán Benyó
This article presents a robust control design method on frequency domain using Mathematica for regularization of glucose level in Type I diabetes... Sample PDF
Robust Blood-Glucose Control of Type I Diabetes Patients Under Intensive Care Using Mathematica
Chapter 152
Bettina Staudinger, Herwig Ostermann, Magdalena Thöni, Roland Staudinger
Since the 1980’s, questions have been asked the world over about the efficiency and contribution of nursing in the hospital treatment of patients... Sample PDF
The Role of Government and its Influence on Nursing Systems by Means of the Definition of Nursing Minimum Data Sets (NMDS)
Chapter 153
Francesco De Mola, Giacomo Cabri
Monitoring heterogeneous medical devices is a key issue for efficient medical information management in highquality health care delivery. Collecting... Sample PDF
A Role-Based Agent-Oriented Approach to Medical Device Integration
Chapter 154
Khaled M. Khan
With the rapid advancement of Web-based technologies, healthcare information systems are becoming increasingly heterogeneous in terms of their... Sample PDF
Security-Aware Service Specification for Healthcare Information Systems
Chapter 155
Roger Tait, Gerald Schaefer
The most important component of an image registration algorithm is the similarity metric used to determine when images are in accurate alignment... Sample PDF
Similarity Metrics for Medical Image Registration
Chapter 156
Adil Deniz Duru, Ali Bayram, Tamer Demiralp, Ahmet Ademoglu
Event-related potentials (ERP) are transient brain responses to cognitive stimuli, and they consist of several stationary events whose temporal... Sample PDF
Source Localization of Subtopographic Brain Maps for Event Related Potentials (ERP)
Chapter 157
Sándor Miklós Szilágyi, László Szilágyi, Attila Frigy, Levente Gorog, Zoltán Benyó
Sudden cardiac death, caused mostly by ventricular fibrillation, is responsible for at least five million deaths in the world each year. Despite... Sample PDF
Spatial Heart Simulation and Adaptive Wave Propagation
Chapter 158
Sándor Miklós Szilágyi, László Szilágyi, Zoltán Benyó
The most important health problem affecting large groups of people is related to the malfunction of the heart, usually caused by heart attack... Sample PDF
Spatial Heart Simulation and Analysis Using Unified Neural Network
Chapter 159
Evelyn H. Thrasher, Terry A. Byrd
Interorganizational networks are defined as “clusters of organizations that make decisions jointly and integrate their efforts to produce a product... Sample PDF
Strategic Fit in the Healthcare IDS
Chapter 160
B.F. Giraldo, A. Garde, C. Arizmendi, R. Jané, I. Diaz, S. Benito
The most common reason for instituting mechanical ventilation is to decrease a patient’s work of breathing. Many attempts have been made to increase... Sample PDF
Support Vector Machine Classification applied on Weaning Trials Patients
Chapter 161
Onur Seref, O. Erhun Kundakcioglu, Michael Bewernitz
The underlying optimization problem for the maximal margin classifier is only feasible if the two classes of pattern vectors are linearly separable.... Sample PDF
Support Vector Machines in Neuroscience
Chapter 162
Maria Teresa Martín, Maria Victoria Román, Manuel Recio
During the last few decades, various theoretical developments have been carried out with a view to describing the characteristic and distinct... Sample PDF
Technology Adoption, Expectancy Value and Prediction Models
Chapter 163
John D. Haynes, Mehnaz Saleem, Moona Kanwal
Disasters constitute events which are catastrophic in nature. Such events critically threaten the health, safety, and lives of people and their... Sample PDF
Telemedicine and Information Technology for Disaster Medical Scenarios
Chapter 164
Lucy Firth, Reeva Lederman, Mazin Ali
Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) is an important e-health application, playing a significant operational role within hospitals in... Sample PDF
A Theoretical Model of Observed Health Benefits of PACS Implementation
Chapter 165
W.F. Lawless, Joseph Wood, Hui-Lien Tung
The inability to establish first principles has kept organizational theory from being successful. Moreover, due to snapshots in time and researcher... Sample PDF
Theory Driven Organizational Metrics
Chapter 166
Hamid Sheikhzadeh, Robert L. Brennan
In this article, we study the problem of rhythm classification and event detection based on intracardiac electrogram (EGM) signals. At present, only... Sample PDF
Time-Frequency Analysis for EGM Rhythm Classification
Chapter 167
Vikram Aggarwal, Yoonju Cho, Aniruddha Chatterjee, Dickson Cheung
Central venous pressure (CVP) is a measure of the mean pressure within the thoracic vena cava, which is the largest vein in the body and responsible... Sample PDF
Ultrasound Guided Noninvasive Measurement of Central Venous Pressure
Chapter 168
A. Dwivedi, R.K. Bali, Nilmini Wickramasinghe, R.N.G. Naguib
The adoption and diffusion of e-health and the application of IT in healthcare is increasing at a rapid rate. Both European and U.S. governments are... Sample PDF
Using Object Oriented Technologies to Build Collaborative Applications in Healthcare and Medical Information Systems
Chapter 169
G. Graschew, T.A. Roelofs, S. Rakowsky, P.M. Schlag
Telemedicine aims at equal access to medical expertise irrespective of the geographical location of the person in need. New developments in... Sample PDF
VEMH: Virtual Euro-Mediterranean Hospital for Evidence-Based Medicine in The Euro-Mediterranean Region
Chapter 170
C. Tominski, P. Schulze-Wollgast, H. Schumann
This article focuses on the visual analysis of human health data that describe the number of cases of different diagnoses in a spatial and temporal... Sample PDF
Visual Methods for Analyzing Human Health Data
Chapter 171
Yueqing Gu, Zhiyu Qian, Huimin Qian, Chunsheng Fang, Yulin Song
Near infrared (NIR) light (700 ~ 900 nm) possesses the capability of penetrating living tissues several centimeters due to the low absorbance of... Sample PDF
In Vivo Near Infrared Techniques for Protein Drug Development
Chapter 172
Sándor Miklós Szilágyi, László Szilágyi, Zoltán Benyó
Echocardiography is the fastest, least expensive, and least invasive heart imaging method. Accordingly, it is one of the most commonly used... Sample PDF
Volumetric Analysis and Modeling of the Heart Using Active Appearance Model
Chapter 173
Weakness of Modern Hospitals  (pages 1383-1389)
Roberto Setola
Until some decades ago, health care services were primarily supplied inside hospitals. The patient had to move from his or her home to the hospital... Sample PDF
Weakness of Modern Hospitals
Chapter 174
Mario Tesconi, Enzo Pasquale Scilingo, Pierluigi Barba, Danilo De Rossi
Posture and motion of body segments are the result of a mutual interaction of several physiological systems such as nervous, muscle-skeletal, and... Sample PDF
Wearable Kinesthetic System for Joint Knee Flexion-Extension Monitoring In Gait Analysis
Chapter 175
Leonor Teixeira, Carlos Ferreira, Beatriz Sousa Santos
Healthcare is characterized by a highly complex environment where the process of patient care requires an unusual amount of communication between... Sample PDF
Web-Enabled System Design for Managing Clinical Information
Chapter 176
Silvia Jiménez-Fernández, Antonio Cobo-Sánchez-de-Rojas, Álvaro Araujo-Pinto, Pedro Malagón, Octavio Nieto-Taladriz, Paula de Toledo, Francisco del Pozo
The care of patients suffering from chronic diseases is a growing source of expense for health care services around the world. The implementation of... Sample PDF
Wireless Sensor Network to Support Home Care in Telemedicine Applications
Chapter 177
C. Combi, G. Pozzi
Organizations achieve their goals by executing processes, which can be physical processes to produce goods (e.g., assembling components of a PC)... Sample PDF
Workflow Management Systems for Healthcare Processes
About the Editors