Stephan Strodl (Vienna University of Technology, Austria), Christoph Becker (Vienna University of Technology, Austria) and Andreas Rauber (Vienna University of Technology, Austria)
Copyright: © 2009
The rapid ongoing changes in software and hardware put digital information at risk. The challenge is to keep electronic data accessible, viewable, and usable for the future when the original software to interpret them has become unavailable. Digital preservation has thus turned into on of the most pressing challenges not only within the digital library community, but also in other areas such as archives and data centres. This chapter introduces the concepts and challenges in the field of digital preservation including the OAIS reference model. We give an overview about the projects and initiatives worldwide dealing with this challenge. We furthermore present preservation planning as a key concept at the heart of preservation endeavours in detail.
The Current State Of Research
The companion document to the UNESCO charter for the preservation of the digital heritage (UNESCO, 2003a) provides a good overview of preservation strategies. Research on technical preservation issues is focused on two dominant strategies—migration and emulation. Migration requires the repeated copy or conversion of digital objects from one technology to a more stable or current, be it hardware or software. Each migration incurs certain risks and preserves only a certain fraction of the characteristics of a digital object. The Council of Library and Information Resources (CLIR) published different kinds of risks for a migration project (Lawrence, Kehoe, Rieger, & Walters, 2000).
Emulation as the second important strategy is a means of overcoming technological obsolescence of hardware and software by developing techniques for imitating obsolete systems on future generations of computers (Jones & Beagrie, 2002). Jeff Rothenberg (Rothenberg, 1999) envisions a framework of an ideal preservation surrounding. The Universal Virtual Computer (UVC) concept (Van der Hoeven, Van der Diessen, & Van En Meer, 2005) uses elements of both migration and emulation, allowing digital objects to be reconstructed in their original appearance. The UVC is independent of any existing hardware or software, it simulates a basic architecture including memory, register and rules. An emerging approach of emulation is modular emulation. Jeffrey van der Hoeven presented the modular emulator called Dioscuri in (Van der Hoeven & Wijngaarden, 2005). It imitates the hardware environment by emulating the components of the hardware architecture. Each hardware components is run as individual emulators and the components are assembled in order to create a full emulation process.
Key Terms in this Chapter
Digital Preservation: The series of managed activities necessary to ensure continued access to digital materials for as long as necessary. It refers to all of the actions required to maintain access to digital materials, both digitised and born digitally, beyond the limits of media failure or technological change (Jones & Beagrie, 2002).
Digital Object: An object composed of a set of bit sequences ((CCSDS), 2002).
Preservation Planning: The process of defining a procedure for preserving a given collection of digital objects. The plan treats organisational, technical and financial aspects of the specific preservation problem at hand.
Emulation: A means of overcoming technological obsolescence of hardware and software by developing techniques for imitating obsolete systems on future generations of computers (Jones & Beagrie, 2002).
OAIS: Model Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System ((CCSDS), 2002).
Migration: A means of overcoming technological obsolescence by transferring digital resources from one hardware/software generation to the next (Jones & Beagrie, 2002).
Archive or Repository: An organization that intends to preserve information for access and use by a designated community ((CCSDS), 2002).
Complete Chapter List
Detailed Table of Contents
Yin-Leng Theng, Schubert Foo, Dion Goh, Jin-Cheon Na
Leonardo Candela, Donatella Castelli, Pasquale Pagano
Mohammed Nasser Al-Suqri, Esther O.A. Fatuyi
Jian-hua Yeh, Shun-hong Sie, Chao-chen Chen
Juan C. Lavariega, Lorena G. Gomez, Martha Sordia-Salinas, David A. Garza-Salazar
George Pyrounakis, Mara Nikolaidou
Ian H. Witten, David Bainbridge
Yin-Leng Theng, Nyein Chan Lwin Lwin, Jin-Cheon Na, Schubert Foo, Dion Hoe-Lian Goh
Schubert Foo, Yin-Leng Theng, Dion Hoe-Lian Goh, Jin-Cheon Na
Fu Lee Wang, Christopher C. Yang
K. S. Chudamani, H. C. Nagarathna
Payam M. Barnaghi, Wei Wang, Jayan C. Kurian
Giovanni Semeraro, Pierpaolo Basile, Marco de Gemmis, Pasquale Lops
Shiyan Ou, Christopher S.G. Khoo, Dion Hoe-Lian Goh
Wooil Kim, John H.L. Hansen
Irene Lourdi, Mara Nikolaidou
Neide Santos, Fernanda C.A. Campos, Regina M.M. Braga Villela
Svenja Hagenhoff, Björn Ortelbach, Lutz Seidenfaden
Stefano Paolozzi, Fernando Ferri, Patrizia Grifoni
Ana Kovacevic, Vladan Devedzic
Jin-Cheon Na, Tun Thura Thet, Dion Hoe-Lian Goh, Yin-Leng Theng, Schubert Foo
Dion Hoe-Lian Goh, Khasfariyati Razikin, Alton Y.K. Chua, Chei Sian Lee, Schubert Foo
Taha Osman, Dhavalkumar Thakker, Gerald Schaefer
Stephen Kimani, Emanuele Panizzi, Tiziana Catarci, Margerita Antona
Spyros Veronikis, Giannis Tsakonas, Christos Papatheodorou
Mila M. Ramos, Luz Marina Alvaré, Cecilia Ferreyra, Peter Shelton
Robert Neumayer, Andreas Rauber
Gerald Schaefer, Simon Ruszala
Cláudio de Souza Baptista, Ulrich Schiel
Nuria Lloret Romero, Margarita Cabrera Méndez, Alicia Sellés Carot, Lilia Fernandez Aquino
Rubén Béjar, J. Nogueras-Iso, Miguel Ángel Latre, Pedro Rafael Muro-Medrano, F. J. Zarazaga-Soria
O. Cantán Casbas, J. Nogueras-Iso, F. J. Zarazaga-Soria
Piedad Garrido Picazo, Jesús Tramullas Saz, Manuel Coll Villalta
Wan Ab. Kadir Wan Dollah, Diljit Singh
Frances L. Lightsom, Alan O. Allwardt
Stephan Strodl, Christoph Becker, Andreas Rauber
Thomas Lidy, Andreas Rauber
Leonardo Bermón-Angarita, Antonio Amescua-Seco, Maria Isabel Sánchez-Segura, Javier García-Guzmán
Kanwal Ameen, Muhammad Rafiq
Seungwon Yang, Barbara M. Wildemuth, Jeffrey P. Pomerantz, Sanghee Oh
Faisal Ahmad, Tamara Sumner, Holly Devaul
Yongqing Ma, Warwick Clegg, Ann O’Brien
Chang Chew-Hung, John G. Hedberg
Michael B. Twidale, David M. Nichols
Soh Whee Kheng Grace