Digital Rights Management of Images and Videos Using Robust Replica Detection Techniques

Digital Rights Management of Images and Videos Using Robust Replica Detection Techniques

Nikos Nikolaidis (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 18
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-118-6.ch007
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Intellectual property rights protection and management of multimedia data is essential for the deployment of e-commerce systems involving transactions on such data. Lately, replica detection or fingerprinting has emerged as a promising approach for the rights management of multimedia data. In this chapter, a review of 2 replica detection techniques is presented. The first technique utilizes color-based descriptors, an R-tree indexing structure, and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) to achieve image replica detection. The second technique is a video fingerprinting method that utilizes information about the appearances of individuals in videos along with an efficient search and matching strategy.
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Numerous systems addressing the issue of copyright protection and DRM in general can be found in the literature, the vast majority of them being based on watermarking. Watermarking is the technique of imperceptibly embedding information within a medium (Tefas et al. 2005). Although watermarking has been the subject of intensive research in both the industry and the academia, it has certain disadvantages. Embedding information inside a multimedia item before it becomes available to the public, implies that the data will be distorted up to a certain extent and that watermarking methods are not applicable to data that are already in the public domain and need to be protected. Moreover, watermarking is unable to cope with leakage of unprotected content, i.e., cases where a copy of the original item that bears no watermark is stolen and distributed.

Recently, the scientific community started to investigate digital rights management in multimedia data from an alternative point of view i.e. as a problem of similarity of such data, the similarity being defined in a robust way. These approaches, which come under different names, such as multimedia fingerprinting (Oostveen et al. 2002), robust or perceptual hashing (Michak & Venkatesan 2001), replica or near-replica recognition/detection (Ke et al. 2004) and copy detection (Kim & Vasudev 2005) aim at extracting from the data a feature vector, called perceptual hash, fingerprint or signature, that characterizes them in a unique, robust and discriminative way. This feature vector can be combined with a database of multimedia documents that need to be managed with respect to their digital rights, an appropriate similarity metric and an efficient database search strategy in order to devise a DRM system. More specifically, such a system can decide if a query digital item resembles a reference item in the database. If this is indeed the case, the query item is identified as being a copy (replica) of the corresponding item in the database and legal action can be pursued against its owner/distributor if he is not legally possessing/distributing it. In order to be of practical use, the feature vectors and the matching procedure involved in a fingerprinting system should be robust to manipulations that multimedia data might undergo, either due to their distribution and use or due to an intentional attempt to make them unrecognizable by the fingerprinting system. Unlike watermarking, no information needs to be embedded within the multimedia content in a fingerprinting system, thus ensuring perfect quality for the data to be protected and furthermore making the system applicable to data that are already in the public domain. It should be mentioned here that the term fingerprinting as used in this chapter and in other papers, should not be confused with the fingerprinting watermarking which is essentially a variant of watermarking.

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List of Reviewers
Table of Contents
Athanasios Skodras
Dimitrios Tsolis, Lambros Drossos, Spyros Sioutas, Theodore Papatheodorou
Chapter 1
Alfredo M. Ronchi
“Creativity is one of the highest forms of human energy. It is a defining human trait that enables us to design and use tools, while giving us the... Sample PDF
Intellectual Property Rights
Chapter 2
Ioannis Kostopoulos
This chapter highlights the need for using copyright protection tools in our digital transactions. The main tools of copyright protection, such as... Sample PDF
Digital Rights Management: A New Trend or a Necessity
Chapter 3
Image Watermarking  (pages 56-70)
Nikos Tsirakis
This chapter describes image watermarking, the most common and widespread category of media files are images. The evolution of the Internet and the... Sample PDF
Image Watermarking
Chapter 4
Alessandro Piva, Roberto Caldelli, Alessia De Rosa, Mauro Barni, Vito Cappellini
The need to safeguard the property rights of multimedia content from unauthorized copying and the possibility to determine the true owners of the... Sample PDF
Watermarking Techniques for DRM Applications
Chapter 5
V. E. Fotopoulos, I. D. Kostopoulos
This chapter introduces JPEG 2000 as an application field for image authentication and the new technology of digital image watermarking. The new... Sample PDF
Watermarking and Authentication in JPEG2000
Chapter 6
Evanthia Tsilichristou
The basic principle of watermarking is the addition of the watermark signal to the host data that we wish to watermark. The addition is taking place... Sample PDF
Securing and Protecting the Copyright of Digital Video Through Watermarking Technologies
Chapter 7
Nikos Nikolaidis
Intellectual property rights protection and management of multimedia data is essential for the deployment of e-commerce systems involving... Sample PDF
Digital Rights Management of Images and Videos Using Robust Replica Detection Techniques
Chapter 8
Shiguo Lian
In this chapter, the digital fingerprinting technology that is used to trace illegal distributors in multimedia content distribution is... Sample PDF
Digital Fingerprinting Based Multimedia Content Distribution
Chapter 9
Tom S. Chan
While delivering content via the Internet can be efficient and economical, content owners risk losing control of their intellectual property. Any... Sample PDF
A Digital Rights Management System for Educational Content Distribution
Chapter 10
Dimitrios P. Meidanis
This chapter investigates intellectual property rights clearance of as part of e-commerce. Rights clearance is viewed as another online transaction... Sample PDF
Digital Rights Management and E-Commerce Transactions: Online Rights Clearance
Chapter 11
Dimitra Pappa, Lefteris G. Gortzis
With emerging technologies constantly creating new possibilities for organisations to manage their information resources, this chapter proposes a... Sample PDF
Digital Rights Management in Organisations: A Critical Consideration with a Socio-Technical Approach
Chapter 12
Georgios Stilios, Dimitrios K. Tsolis
The issue addressed in this chapter is the design, implementation, and evaluation of a watermarking application, especially focused on the... Sample PDF
An Advanced Watermarking Application for the Copyright Protection and Management of Digital Images of Cultural Heritage Case Study: “Ulysses”
Chapter 13
Andrea de Polo
Digital Rights Management (DRM) describes a set of functionalities which control access to, and the use of, copyright material. In particular, they... Sample PDF
Digital Rights Management in the Cultural Heritage Arena: A Truth or a Myth
Chapter 14
Christos Golfinopoulos
The purpose of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of the legal framework that applies to Digital Rights Management (DRM) information and... Sample PDF
Digital Rights Management: A European Law Perspective
Chapter 15
Vagelis Papakonstantinou
DRM systems have been implemented in the past few years by the Content Industry as the panacea against all copyright (and Intellectual Property... Sample PDF
Legal Issues for DRM: The Future
About the Contributors