Digital Rights Management for Streaming Media

Digital Rights Management for Streaming Media

Deepali Brahmbhatt (San Jose State University, USA) and Mark Stamp (San Jose State University, USA)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 17
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-262-6.ch002
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This chapter presents a digital rights management (DRM) system designed for streaming media. A brief, general introduction to DRM is also provided, along with a discussion of the some specific issues that arise in the context of streaming media. The DRM system proposed here has been implemented and some details related to the implementation are discussed.
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For the purposes of this paper, digital rights management (DRM) can be viewed as an attempt to provide “remote control” over digital content. That is, DRM is supposed to make it possible to securely deliver digital content and to restrict the actions of the recipient after the data has been delivered.

Consider, for example, a digital book. Certainly, the publisher would like to deliver such a book over the Internet, since there is an enormous potential market and the costs of reproduction and delivery are negligible.

However, if an attacker can redistribute a perfect digital copy of the book, then the rate of piracy would almost certainly be intolerable—if not virtually 100%. An ideal DRM system (from the perspective of the copyright holder) would prevent the redistribution of the book in an unprotected form, and perhaps also enforce other restrictions, such as “no printing.” Such an ideal DRM system is impossible, as noted in the indispensable paper by Biddle, et. al. (2002) and in Stamp (2002). The interesting question then is, what is the best practical DRM system? What is “best” depends on many factors, not all of which are strictly technical in nature. For example, the value of the content being protected, the technical sophistication of typical users, the overall business model, and the credibility of threats of legal reprisals greatly effect the utility of any DRM system; see Stamp (2003b) for a discussion of these and other non-technical DRM issues.

It is important to note a few salient issues concerning DRM. First, the fundamental requirement of a DRM system is that restrictions must be enforced after the content is delivered to the intended recipient. Since these restrictions must stay with the data wherever it goes, the buzzword for this DRM requirement is “persistent protection.” This is in contrast to the usual cryptographic scenario, where the goal is simply to securely deliver the bits.

Second, the legitimate recipient is a potential attacker. This is also in stark contrast to the usual cryptographic situation, where the intended recipient (i.e., the entity that holds the corresponding decryption key) is a “good guy”, not an attacker.

Third, cryptography is necessary, but far from sufficient for useful DRM. It is necessary to encrypt digital content in order to securely deliver the bits, and this is a part of any DRM system. However, securely delivering the bits is the easy part of DRM.

Cryptography alone is insufficient for effective DRM—to render the content, the recipient must access to the key, and the recipient is a potential attacker. Cryptography was not designed to solve this problem, where, in effect, we must give the attacker the key. The essence of DRM security can therefore be reduced to playing “hide and seek” with cryptographic keys, although this fundamental fact is not always clear from the descriptions of fielded or proposed DRM systems.

It has been shown that it is not trivial to effectively hide a key in data (Shamir and van Someren 1999) and that software obfuscation techniques are not sufficient to hide a key in software (Jacob, Boneh, and Felten 2003). In any event, this game of hide and seek is at the core of any DRM system. This topic is explored further in the next section.

Finally, it is important to note that there is an absolute limit on the utility of any DRM system. The digital content must ultimately be rendered, and at that point it is subject to capture in analog form. Even if a perfect DRM system were available, digital music, for example, could be recorded using a microphone when it is rendered. In our digital book example, an attacker could take digital snapshots of the pages of the book when it is displayed on a computer screen. This is the so-called “analog hole” (Doctorow 2002), which is obviously present in any DRM system. These sorts of analog attacks are beyond the scope of the DRM system. But since such attacks likely result in a loss of fidelity as compared to the original digital content, they are, perhaps, not as serious of a concern as a successful attack on the DRM system itself. Consequently, the goal of a DRM system is to prevent the attacker from obtaining an unprotected and high quality digital copy of the original.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Streaming Media: Consists of digital media transmitted over a network in such a way that it can be consumed while the transmission is in progress.

Linux: On open source operating system based on Unix.

Digital Rights Management (DRM): Consists of the methods used to control access to copyrighted digital content.

Device Driver: Low-level software that the operating system uses to control a hardware device.

Break Once, Break Everywhere Resistance (BOBE): A highly desirable property of a DRM system. A system is BOBE-resistant if a successful attack on a piece of digital content does not break the entire system.

Open Source Software: Software for which the source code is freely available.

Windows Media Player: A digital media player from Microsoft.

BOBE Resistance: (See break once, break everywhere resistance.)

Complete Chapter List

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Borko Furht
Shiguo Lian, Yan Zhang
Shiguo Lian, Yan Zhang
Chapter 1
Pramod A. Jamkhedkar, Gregory L. Heileman
Rights expression languages (RELs) form a central component of digital rights management (DRM) systems. The process of development of RELs... Sample PDF
Rights Expression Languages
Chapter 2
Deepali Brahmbhatt, Mark Stamp
This chapter presents a digital rights management (DRM) system designed for streaming media. A brief, general introduction to DRM is also provided... Sample PDF
Digital Rights Management for Streaming Media
Chapter 3
Jean-Henry Morin
This chapter introduces and discusses much needed alternatives to the traditional either/or debate on total security of secure multimedia... Sample PDF
Rethinking DRM Using Exception Management
Chapter 4
Mercè Serra Joan, Bert Greevenbosch, Anja Becker, Harald Fuchs
This chapter gives an overview of the Open Mobile AllianceTM Digital Rights Management (OMA DRM) standard, which allows for the secure distribution... Sample PDF
Overview of OMA Digital Rights Management
Chapter 5
Hugo Jonker, Sjouke Mauw
The use of Digital Rights Management (DRM) systems involves several stakeholders, such as the content provider, the license provider, and the user... Sample PDF
Discovering the Core Security Requirements of DRM Systems by Means of Objective Trees
Chapter 6
Pallavi Priyadarshini, Mark Stamp
Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks have proliferated and become ubiquitous. A school of thought has emerged that harnessing the established user-base and... Sample PDF
Digital Rights Management for Untrusted Peer-to-Peer Networks
Chapter 7
L. Badia, A. Erta, U. Malesci
Traditional analog video surveillance systems technology has recently become inadequate to face the massive demand of security systems consisting of... Sample PDF
Pervasive Video Surveillance Systems Over TCP/IP Networks
Chapter 8
Ramya Venkataramu, Mark Stamp
Digital Rights Management (DRM) technology is used to control access to copyrighted digital content. Apple employs a DRM system known as Fairplay in... Sample PDF
P2PTunes: A Peer-to-Peer Digital Rights Management System
Chapter 9
Nicolas Anciaux, Luc Bouganim, Philippe Pucheral
This chapter advocates the convergence between Access Control (AC) models, focusing on the granularity of sharing, and Digital Right Management... Sample PDF
A Hardware Approach for Trusted Access and Usage Control
Chapter 10
Ionut Florescu
Regarding fundamental protocols in cryptography, the Diffie-Hellman (Diffie and Hellman, 1976) public key exchange protocol is one of the oldest and... Sample PDF
A Summary of Recent and Old Results on the Security of the Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange Protocol in Finite Groups
Chapter 11
Guojun Wang, Yirong Wu, Geyong Min, Ronghua Shi
Secret sharing aims at distributing and sharing a secret among a group of participants efficiently. In this chapter, we propose a plane-based access... Sample PDF
Secret Sharing with k-Dimensional Access Structure
Chapter 12
Supavadee Aramvith, Rhandley D. Cajote
Presently, both wireless communications and multimedia communications have experienced unequaled rapid growth and commercial success. Building on... Sample PDF
Wireless Video Transmission
Chapter 13
M. Hassan Shirali-Shahreza, Mohammad Shirali-Shahreza
Establishing hidden communication is an important subject of discussion that has gained increasing importance recently, particularly with the... Sample PDF
A Survey of Information Hiding
Chapter 14
Fan Zhang
The digital multimedia, including text, image, graphics, audio, video, and so forth, has become a main way for information communication along with... Sample PDF
Digital Watermarking Capacity and Detection Error Rate
Chapter 15
Digital Watermarking  (pages 277-297)
Aidan Mooney
As Internet usage continues to grow, people are becoming more aware of the need to protect the display and presentation of digital documents.... Sample PDF
Digital Watermarking
Chapter 16
Pradeep K. Atrey, Abdulmotaleb El Saddik, Mohan Kankanhalli
Digital video authentication has been a topic of immense interest to researchers in the past few years. Authentication of a digital video refers to... Sample PDF
Digital Video Authentication
Chapter 17
Tieyan Li
The multimedia community is moving from monolithic applications to more flexible and scalable proliferate solutions. Security issues such as access... Sample PDF
Flexible Multimedia Stream Authentication
Chapter 18
K-G Stenborg
Media that is distributed digitally can be copied and redistributed illegally. Embedding an individual watermark in the media object for each... Sample PDF
Scalable Distribution of Watermarked Media
Chapter 19
Hafiz Malik
This chapter provides critical analysis of current state-of-the-art in steganography. First part of the this chapter provides the classification of... Sample PDF
Critical Analysis of Digital Steganography
Chapter 20
Esther Palomar, Juan M.E. Tapiador, Julio C. Hernandez-Castro, Arturo Ribagorda
Perhaps the most popular feature offered by Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks is the possibility of having several replicas of the same content... Sample PDF
Secure Content Distribution in Pure P2P
Chapter 21
Andreas U. Schmidt, Nicolai Kuntze
Security in the value creation chain hinges on many single components and their interrelations. Trusted Platforms open ways to fulfil the pertinent... Sample PDF
Trust in the Value-Creation Chain of Multimedia Goods
Chapter 22
Goo-Rak Kwon, Sung-Jea Ko
The objective of this chapter introduces an advanced encryption of MP3 and MPEG-4 coder with a quality degradation-based security model. For the MP3... Sample PDF
Copyright Protection of A/V Codec for Mobile Multimedia Devices
Chapter 23
Frank Y. Shih, Yi-Ta Wu
Steganography is the art of hiding secret data inside other innocent media file. Steganalysis is the process of detecting hidden data which are... Sample PDF
Digital Steganography Based on Genetic Algorithm
Chapter 24
Guangjie Liu, Shiguo Lian, Yuewei Dai, Zhiquan Wang
Image steganography is a common form of information hiding which embeds as many message bits into images and keep the introduced distortion... Sample PDF
Adaptive Image Steganography Based on Structural Similarity Metric
Chapter 25
Shiguo Lian
Video watermarking technique embeds some information into videos by modifying video content slightly. The embedded information, named watermark, may... Sample PDF
A Survey on Video Watermarking
Chapter 26
Minglei Liu, Ce Zhu
Digital watermarking is a useful and powerful tool for multimedia security such as copyright protection, tamper proofing and assessment, broadcast... Sample PDF
Multiple Description Coding with Application in Multimedia Watermarking
Chapter 27
Hsuan T. Chang, Chih-Chung Hsu
This chapter introduces a pioneer concept in which multiple images are simultaneously considered in the compression and secured distribution... Sample PDF
Fractal-Based Secured Multiple-Image Compression and Distribution
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