Digital Steganography Based on Genetic Algorithm

Digital Steganography Based on Genetic Algorithm

Frank Y. Shih (New Jersey Institute of Technology, USA) and Yi-Ta Wu (Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 15
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-262-6.ch023
OnDemand PDF Download:


Steganography is the art of hiding secret data inside other innocent media file. Steganalysis is the process of detecting hidden data which are crested using steganography. Steganalysis detects stego-images by analyzing various image features between stego-images and cover-images. Therefore, we need to have a system that develops more critical stego-images from which steganalysis cannot detect them. In this chapter, we present a Genetic algorithm-(GA) based method for breaking steganalytic systems. The emphasis is shifted from traditionally avoiding the change of statistic features to artificially counterfeiting the statistic features. Our idea is based on the following: in order to manipulate the statistic features for breaking the inspection of steganalytic systems, the GA-based approach is adopted to counterfeit several stego-images (candidates) until one of them can break the inspection of steganalytic systems.
Chapter Preview


As digital information and data are transmitted more often than ever over the Internet, the technology of protecting and securing the sensitive messages needs to be discovered and developed. Digital steganography is the art and science of hiding information into covert channels, so as to conceal the information and prevent the detection of the hidden message. Covert channel is a genre of information security research, which generally is not a major player, but has been an extremely active topic in the academia, industry and government domains for the past 30 years.

The data hiding in steganography is intended in such a way that only the receiver knows the existence of the secret data. It is different from cryptography which encodes messages by scrambling, so nobody can read it without the specific key. Another technique, digital watermarking, is concerned with issues related to copyright protection and intellectual property (Shih, 2007; Cox, 2001; Wu, 2004); therefore, a watermark usually contains the information pertaining to the carrier and the owner. The well-known steganographic methods include covert channel, invisible ink, microdot, and spread-spectrum communication (Kahn, 1996; Norman, 1973).

There is a classic example to explain steganography illustrated by Simmons in1983, which is called the prisoners’ problem (Simmons, 1984). There are two prisoners, called Alice and Bob, who are planning to escape from jail. All the communications between them are monitored by a warden, called Wendy. So to escape from the eyes of Wendy, the two prisoners must communicate with each other by a cover on their messages. They create a stego-object, which is sent through the public channel to be observed by Wendy who can freely inspect it. Wendy’s observation is classified into two types, called active and passive. In an active state, Wendy can modify the message by a little thwart any hidden communication, but the hidden message may be survived under Wendy’s modification. In a passive state, Wendy can examine all the messages between Alice and Bob and does not change any message but finds whether the message contains any hidden message. In most of the cases, the warden is considered as passive, and it is highly possible that Wendy cannot find the hidden message from the stego-object.

For steganographic systems, the fundamental requirement is that the stego-object should be perceptually indistinguishable to the degree that it does not raise suspicion. In other words, the hidden information introduces only slight modification to the cover-object. Most passive warden distinguishes the stego-images by analyzing their statistic features. Since hiding information within an image causes some form of image degradation or unusual characteristics, steganalysis intends to identify suspected information streams and determine whether they have hidden messages encoded into them. Figure 1 shows an example of steganography, where (a) is a cover-image, (b) is the secret image containing NJIT logo, and (c) is the stego-image after the least-significant-bit (LSB) embedding of the secret image into the cover-image.

Figure 1.

(a) A Lena cover-image, (b) the NJIT logo, (c) the stego-image after embedding the NJIT logo into the Lena image

Modern techniques in steganography have far-more-powerful tools. Many software tools allow a paranoid sender to embed messages in digitized information, typically audio, video or still image files that were sent to a recipient. Although steganography has attracted great interests from the military and governmental organizations, there is even a big interest shown from commercial companies to safeguard their information from piracy. Today, steganography is often used to transmit information safely and embed trademarks securely in images and music files to assure copyright.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Linguistic Steganography: The technique utilizes written natural language to hide information. It can be categorized into semagrams and open codes.

Steganalysis: The process of detecting the hidden data which are crested using steganography.

S-Tools: or Steganography Tools: The tools to hide the secret messages in BMP, GIF, and WAV files.

StegoDos: The tools consists of a set of programs that allow us to capture an image, encode a secret message and display the stego-image.

Jsteg-Jpeg: The tool can read multiple format images and embed the secret messages to be saved as the JPEG format images.

Genetic Algorithm: An adaptive approach that provides a randomized, parallel, and global search based on the mechanics of natural selection and genetics in order to find solutions of a problem.

Technical Steganography: The scientific methods to conceal a secret message, such as the use of invisible ink, microdots, and shaved heads.

Digital Steganography: The science to hide secret messages within digital media, such as digital images, audio files or video files.

EzStego: The tool simulates the invisible ink for Internet communication.

Steganography: The art of hiding secret data inside other innocent media file.

Complete Chapter List

Search this Book:
Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Borko Furht
Shiguo Lian, Yan Zhang
Shiguo Lian, Yan Zhang
Chapter 1
Pramod A. Jamkhedkar, Gregory L. Heileman
Rights expression languages (RELs) form a central component of digital rights management (DRM) systems. The process of development of RELs... Sample PDF
Rights Expression Languages
Chapter 2
Deepali Brahmbhatt, Mark Stamp
This chapter presents a digital rights management (DRM) system designed for streaming media. A brief, general introduction to DRM is also provided... Sample PDF
Digital Rights Management for Streaming Media
Chapter 3
Jean-Henry Morin
This chapter introduces and discusses much needed alternatives to the traditional either/or debate on total security of secure multimedia... Sample PDF
Rethinking DRM Using Exception Management
Chapter 4
Mercè Serra Joan, Bert Greevenbosch, Anja Becker, Harald Fuchs
This chapter gives an overview of the Open Mobile AllianceTM Digital Rights Management (OMA DRM) standard, which allows for the secure distribution... Sample PDF
Overview of OMA Digital Rights Management
Chapter 5
Hugo Jonker, Sjouke Mauw
The use of Digital Rights Management (DRM) systems involves several stakeholders, such as the content provider, the license provider, and the user... Sample PDF
Discovering the Core Security Requirements of DRM Systems by Means of Objective Trees
Chapter 6
Pallavi Priyadarshini, Mark Stamp
Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks have proliferated and become ubiquitous. A school of thought has emerged that harnessing the established user-base and... Sample PDF
Digital Rights Management for Untrusted Peer-to-Peer Networks
Chapter 7
L. Badia, A. Erta, U. Malesci
Traditional analog video surveillance systems technology has recently become inadequate to face the massive demand of security systems consisting of... Sample PDF
Pervasive Video Surveillance Systems Over TCP/IP Networks
Chapter 8
Ramya Venkataramu, Mark Stamp
Digital Rights Management (DRM) technology is used to control access to copyrighted digital content. Apple employs a DRM system known as Fairplay in... Sample PDF
P2PTunes: A Peer-to-Peer Digital Rights Management System
Chapter 9
Nicolas Anciaux, Luc Bouganim, Philippe Pucheral
This chapter advocates the convergence between Access Control (AC) models, focusing on the granularity of sharing, and Digital Right Management... Sample PDF
A Hardware Approach for Trusted Access and Usage Control
Chapter 10
Ionut Florescu
Regarding fundamental protocols in cryptography, the Diffie-Hellman (Diffie and Hellman, 1976) public key exchange protocol is one of the oldest and... Sample PDF
A Summary of Recent and Old Results on the Security of the Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange Protocol in Finite Groups
Chapter 11
Guojun Wang, Yirong Wu, Geyong Min, Ronghua Shi
Secret sharing aims at distributing and sharing a secret among a group of participants efficiently. In this chapter, we propose a plane-based access... Sample PDF
Secret Sharing with k-Dimensional Access Structure
Chapter 12
Supavadee Aramvith, Rhandley D. Cajote
Presently, both wireless communications and multimedia communications have experienced unequaled rapid growth and commercial success. Building on... Sample PDF
Wireless Video Transmission
Chapter 13
M. Hassan Shirali-Shahreza, Mohammad Shirali-Shahreza
Establishing hidden communication is an important subject of discussion that has gained increasing importance recently, particularly with the... Sample PDF
A Survey of Information Hiding
Chapter 14
Fan Zhang
The digital multimedia, including text, image, graphics, audio, video, and so forth, has become a main way for information communication along with... Sample PDF
Digital Watermarking Capacity and Detection Error Rate
Chapter 15
Digital Watermarking  (pages 277-297)
Aidan Mooney
As Internet usage continues to grow, people are becoming more aware of the need to protect the display and presentation of digital documents.... Sample PDF
Digital Watermarking
Chapter 16
Pradeep K. Atrey, Abdulmotaleb El Saddik, Mohan Kankanhalli
Digital video authentication has been a topic of immense interest to researchers in the past few years. Authentication of a digital video refers to... Sample PDF
Digital Video Authentication
Chapter 17
Tieyan Li
The multimedia community is moving from monolithic applications to more flexible and scalable proliferate solutions. Security issues such as access... Sample PDF
Flexible Multimedia Stream Authentication
Chapter 18
K-G Stenborg
Media that is distributed digitally can be copied and redistributed illegally. Embedding an individual watermark in the media object for each... Sample PDF
Scalable Distribution of Watermarked Media
Chapter 19
Hafiz Malik
This chapter provides critical analysis of current state-of-the-art in steganography. First part of the this chapter provides the classification of... Sample PDF
Critical Analysis of Digital Steganography
Chapter 20
Esther Palomar, Juan M.E. Tapiador, Julio C. Hernandez-Castro, Arturo Ribagorda
Perhaps the most popular feature offered by Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks is the possibility of having several replicas of the same content... Sample PDF
Secure Content Distribution in Pure P2P
Chapter 21
Andreas U. Schmidt, Nicolai Kuntze
Security in the value creation chain hinges on many single components and their interrelations. Trusted Platforms open ways to fulfil the pertinent... Sample PDF
Trust in the Value-Creation Chain of Multimedia Goods
Chapter 22
Goo-Rak Kwon, Sung-Jea Ko
The objective of this chapter introduces an advanced encryption of MP3 and MPEG-4 coder with a quality degradation-based security model. For the MP3... Sample PDF
Copyright Protection of A/V Codec for Mobile Multimedia Devices
Chapter 23
Frank Y. Shih, Yi-Ta Wu
Steganography is the art of hiding secret data inside other innocent media file. Steganalysis is the process of detecting hidden data which are... Sample PDF
Digital Steganography Based on Genetic Algorithm
Chapter 24
Guangjie Liu, Shiguo Lian, Yuewei Dai, Zhiquan Wang
Image steganography is a common form of information hiding which embeds as many message bits into images and keep the introduced distortion... Sample PDF
Adaptive Image Steganography Based on Structural Similarity Metric
Chapter 25
Shiguo Lian
Video watermarking technique embeds some information into videos by modifying video content slightly. The embedded information, named watermark, may... Sample PDF
A Survey on Video Watermarking
Chapter 26
Minglei Liu, Ce Zhu
Digital watermarking is a useful and powerful tool for multimedia security such as copyright protection, tamper proofing and assessment, broadcast... Sample PDF
Multiple Description Coding with Application in Multimedia Watermarking
Chapter 27
Hsuan T. Chang, Chih-Chung Hsu
This chapter introduces a pioneer concept in which multiple images are simultaneously considered in the compression and secured distribution... Sample PDF
Fractal-Based Secured Multiple-Image Compression and Distribution
About the Contributors