Digital Watermarking

Digital Watermarking

Aidan Mooney (National University of Ireland Maynooth, Ireland)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 21
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-262-6.ch015
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As Internet usage continues to grow, people are becoming more aware of the need to protect the display and presentation of digital documents. Digital watermarking offers a means to protect such documents. It works by embedding a piece of information into these documents – either visibly or invisibly – which can be detected or extracted from the document at a later stage to prove ownership of the document. This chapter will review, in detail, the process of digital image watermarking and will evaluate the different types of watermarks which may be used and the different techniques used to embed the watermarks. An examination of the domains used to embed the watermarks and some of the techniques used for detection of the embedded watermark are provided. Finally future trends within the area of digital watermarking are outlined.
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Digital watermarking aims to embed a piece of information in some cover document without affecting the overall appearance of the image. Before going into detail on digital watermarking we will first look at some similar techniques, namely Steganography and Cryptography.


Steganography is a term derived from the Greek words steganos, which means “covered”, and graphia, which means “writing”. Steganography is the art of concealed communication: the very existence of the message is a secret. An often used example of steganography is a story from the histories of Herodotus, which tells of a slave sent by his master, Histiaeus, to the Ionian city of Miletus with a secret message tattooed on his scalp. After tattooing, the slave grew his hair back in order to conceal the message. He then travelled to Miletus and, upon arriving, his hair was shaved to reveal the message to the city’s regent, Aristagoras. The message encouraged Aristagoras to start a revolt against the Persian king. In this case the message is of primary value to Histiaeus and the slave is simply the carrier of the message. In steganography, the message being hidden is of upmost importance and the document it is hidden within (the carrier) is of minor importance (de Sélincourt, 1954).

Steganography is the study of techniques for hiding the existence of a secondary message in the presence of a primary message. The primary message is referred to as the carrier signal or carrier message; the secondary message is referred to as the payload signal or payload message. Arnold (2003) states that classical steganography (i.e., steganographic techniques invented prior to the use of digital media for communication) can be divided into two areas; technical steganography and linguistic steganography. Examples of technical steganography include the above mentioned story about Histiaeus and the use of invisible ink. Examples of linguistic steganography include marking specific characters with punctuation or lowering certain characters and using spacing between letters in a word to hide a secret message.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Cryptography: Cryptography is the process or skill of communicating in or deciphering secret writings or ciphers.

Pseudorandom Watermark: A watermark generated by iterating a pseudorandom number generator. These watermarks are generally white in nature.

Watermark Attacks: An attack is any attempt (malicious or coincidental) to inhibit a watermarking system.

Watermark Embedding: A watermark embedding technique is an algorithm for inserting a watermark into a cover document.

Steganography: Steganography is the art of concealed communication: the very existence of the message is a secret. Steganography is the study of techniques for hiding the existence of a secondary message in the presence of a primary message.

Watermark Detection: A watermark detector is a hardware device or software application that detects and decodes a watermark.

Digital Watermarking: Digital watermarking is a technique that aims to embed a piece of information permanently into some digital media, which may be used at a later stage to prove owner authentication and attempt to provide protection to documents. Watermarking, unlike steganography, has the additional notion of resilience against attempts to remove the hidden data.

Chaotic Watermark: A watermark generated by iterating a chaotic function. These watermarks offer the user more control over the spectral properties of the generated watermarks.

Robustness: Robustness refers to the ability to detect the watermark after common signal processing operations and attacks.

Capacity: The capacity of a system refers to the number of bits of a watermark that may be encoded within a cover document.

Complete Chapter List

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Borko Furht
Shiguo Lian, Yan Zhang
Shiguo Lian, Yan Zhang
Chapter 1
Pramod A. Jamkhedkar, Gregory L. Heileman
Rights expression languages (RELs) form a central component of digital rights management (DRM) systems. The process of development of RELs... Sample PDF
Rights Expression Languages
Chapter 2
Deepali Brahmbhatt, Mark Stamp
This chapter presents a digital rights management (DRM) system designed for streaming media. A brief, general introduction to DRM is also provided... Sample PDF
Digital Rights Management for Streaming Media
Chapter 3
Jean-Henry Morin
This chapter introduces and discusses much needed alternatives to the traditional either/or debate on total security of secure multimedia... Sample PDF
Rethinking DRM Using Exception Management
Chapter 4
Mercè Serra Joan, Bert Greevenbosch, Anja Becker, Harald Fuchs
This chapter gives an overview of the Open Mobile AllianceTM Digital Rights Management (OMA DRM) standard, which allows for the secure distribution... Sample PDF
Overview of OMA Digital Rights Management
Chapter 5
Hugo Jonker, Sjouke Mauw
The use of Digital Rights Management (DRM) systems involves several stakeholders, such as the content provider, the license provider, and the user... Sample PDF
Discovering the Core Security Requirements of DRM Systems by Means of Objective Trees
Chapter 6
Pallavi Priyadarshini, Mark Stamp
Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks have proliferated and become ubiquitous. A school of thought has emerged that harnessing the established user-base and... Sample PDF
Digital Rights Management for Untrusted Peer-to-Peer Networks
Chapter 7
L. Badia, A. Erta, U. Malesci
Traditional analog video surveillance systems technology has recently become inadequate to face the massive demand of security systems consisting of... Sample PDF
Pervasive Video Surveillance Systems Over TCP/IP Networks
Chapter 8
Ramya Venkataramu, Mark Stamp
Digital Rights Management (DRM) technology is used to control access to copyrighted digital content. Apple employs a DRM system known as Fairplay in... Sample PDF
P2PTunes: A Peer-to-Peer Digital Rights Management System
Chapter 9
Nicolas Anciaux, Luc Bouganim, Philippe Pucheral
This chapter advocates the convergence between Access Control (AC) models, focusing on the granularity of sharing, and Digital Right Management... Sample PDF
A Hardware Approach for Trusted Access and Usage Control
Chapter 10
Ionut Florescu
Regarding fundamental protocols in cryptography, the Diffie-Hellman (Diffie and Hellman, 1976) public key exchange protocol is one of the oldest and... Sample PDF
A Summary of Recent and Old Results on the Security of the Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange Protocol in Finite Groups
Chapter 11
Guojun Wang, Yirong Wu, Geyong Min, Ronghua Shi
Secret sharing aims at distributing and sharing a secret among a group of participants efficiently. In this chapter, we propose a plane-based access... Sample PDF
Secret Sharing with k-Dimensional Access Structure
Chapter 12
Supavadee Aramvith, Rhandley D. Cajote
Presently, both wireless communications and multimedia communications have experienced unequaled rapid growth and commercial success. Building on... Sample PDF
Wireless Video Transmission
Chapter 13
M. Hassan Shirali-Shahreza, Mohammad Shirali-Shahreza
Establishing hidden communication is an important subject of discussion that has gained increasing importance recently, particularly with the... Sample PDF
A Survey of Information Hiding
Chapter 14
Fan Zhang
The digital multimedia, including text, image, graphics, audio, video, and so forth, has become a main way for information communication along with... Sample PDF
Digital Watermarking Capacity and Detection Error Rate
Chapter 15
Digital Watermarking  (pages 277-297)
Aidan Mooney
As Internet usage continues to grow, people are becoming more aware of the need to protect the display and presentation of digital documents.... Sample PDF
Digital Watermarking
Chapter 16
Pradeep K. Atrey, Abdulmotaleb El Saddik, Mohan Kankanhalli
Digital video authentication has been a topic of immense interest to researchers in the past few years. Authentication of a digital video refers to... Sample PDF
Digital Video Authentication
Chapter 17
Tieyan Li
The multimedia community is moving from monolithic applications to more flexible and scalable proliferate solutions. Security issues such as access... Sample PDF
Flexible Multimedia Stream Authentication
Chapter 18
K-G Stenborg
Media that is distributed digitally can be copied and redistributed illegally. Embedding an individual watermark in the media object for each... Sample PDF
Scalable Distribution of Watermarked Media
Chapter 19
Hafiz Malik
This chapter provides critical analysis of current state-of-the-art in steganography. First part of the this chapter provides the classification of... Sample PDF
Critical Analysis of Digital Steganography
Chapter 20
Esther Palomar, Juan M.E. Tapiador, Julio C. Hernandez-Castro, Arturo Ribagorda
Perhaps the most popular feature offered by Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks is the possibility of having several replicas of the same content... Sample PDF
Secure Content Distribution in Pure P2P
Chapter 21
Andreas U. Schmidt, Nicolai Kuntze
Security in the value creation chain hinges on many single components and their interrelations. Trusted Platforms open ways to fulfil the pertinent... Sample PDF
Trust in the Value-Creation Chain of Multimedia Goods
Chapter 22
Goo-Rak Kwon, Sung-Jea Ko
The objective of this chapter introduces an advanced encryption of MP3 and MPEG-4 coder with a quality degradation-based security model. For the MP3... Sample PDF
Copyright Protection of A/V Codec for Mobile Multimedia Devices
Chapter 23
Frank Y. Shih, Yi-Ta Wu
Steganography is the art of hiding secret data inside other innocent media file. Steganalysis is the process of detecting hidden data which are... Sample PDF
Digital Steganography Based on Genetic Algorithm
Chapter 24
Guangjie Liu, Shiguo Lian, Yuewei Dai, Zhiquan Wang
Image steganography is a common form of information hiding which embeds as many message bits into images and keep the introduced distortion... Sample PDF
Adaptive Image Steganography Based on Structural Similarity Metric
Chapter 25
Shiguo Lian
Video watermarking technique embeds some information into videos by modifying video content slightly. The embedded information, named watermark, may... Sample PDF
A Survey on Video Watermarking
Chapter 26
Minglei Liu, Ce Zhu
Digital watermarking is a useful and powerful tool for multimedia security such as copyright protection, tamper proofing and assessment, broadcast... Sample PDF
Multiple Description Coding with Application in Multimedia Watermarking
Chapter 27
Hsuan T. Chang, Chih-Chung Hsu
This chapter introduces a pioneer concept in which multiple images are simultaneously considered in the compression and secured distribution... Sample PDF
Fractal-Based Secured Multiple-Image Compression and Distribution
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