Digitisation: Methods, Tools and Technology

Digitisation: Methods, Tools and Technology

Jagdish Arora (INFLIBNET, Ahmedabad, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-61520-767-1.ch003
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This chapter provides a practical approach to digital libraries. The authors present a comprehensive picture of digitization and explains the process of digitization in a step-by-step approach. The chapter also describes different file formats and alternatives to digitization.
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Digitisation: Basics


The word “digital” describes any system based on discontinuous data or events. Computers are digital machines because at their most basic level they can distinguish between just two values, 0 and 1, or off and on. All data that a computer processes must be encoded digitally as a series of zeroes and ones.

The opposite of digital is analogue. A typical analogue device is a clock in which the hands move continuously around the face. Such a clock is capable of indicating every possible time of the day. In contrast, a digital clock is capable of representing only a finite number of times (every tenth of a second, for example).

As mentioned before, a printed book is analogue form of information. The contents of a book need to be digitised to convert it into digital form. Digitisation is the process of converting the content of physical media (e.g., periodical articles, books, manuscripts, cards, photographs, vinyl disks, etc.) to digital formats.

Digitisation refers to the process of translating a piece of information such as a book, journal articles, sound recordings, pictures, audio tapes or videos recordings, etc. into bits. Bits are the fundamental units of information in a computer system. Converting information into these binary digits is called digitisation, which can be achieved through a variety of existing technologies. A digital image, in turn, is composed of a set of pixels (picture elements), arranged according to a pre-defined ratio of columns and rows. An image file can be managed as a regular computer file and can be retrieved, printed and modified using appropriate software. Further, textual images can be OCRed so as to make its contents searchable.

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Table of Contents
Dr.Tariq Ashraf, Jaideep Sharma, Ms.Puja Anand Gulati
Chapter 1
Dr.Tariq Ashraf, Ms.Puja Anand Gulati
The chapter discusses the concept of digital libraries and their structures. It delves into their role in the virtual learning environment and... Sample PDF
Digital Libraries: A Sustainable Approach
Chapter 2
S. C. Jindal
The chapter examines various components of scholarly communication in the context of digital technologies as being applied in libraries. It... Sample PDF
Digital Libraries and Scholarly Communication: A Perspective
Chapter 3
Jagdish Arora
This chapter provides a practical approach to digital libraries. The authors present a comprehensive picture of digitization and explains the... Sample PDF
Digitisation: Methods, Tools and Technology
Chapter 4
Pravin Kumar Choudhary
In the last two decades, significant theoretical work has been done in the area of electronic conversion of documents. There are different methods... Sample PDF
Tools and Techniques for Digital Conversion
Chapter 5
Kshema Prakash, Jason A. Pannone, K. Santi Swarup
Blogging is a relatively recent phenomenon, and its use in academic libraries is in nascent stage. The authors of this chapter use blogs as part of... Sample PDF
Building Digital Libraries: Role of Social (Open Source) Software
Chapter 6
Arun Kumar Chakraborty
The Chapter begins with a definition of digital library approaches and features, examines ways in which open source and social software applications... Sample PDF
Web 2.0 and Social Web Approaches to Digital Libraries
Chapter 7
Manisha Saksena
In the digital world, library services need to be transformed utilizing the advancements possible due to that automation and machine-to-machine... Sample PDF
Information Preservation and Information Services in the Digital Age
Chapter 8
David Giaretta
To preserve digitally encoded information over a long term following the OAIS Reference Model requires that the information remains accessible... Sample PDF
Digital Preservation Challenges, Infrastructures and Evaluations
Chapter 9
Shantanu Ganguly, Shweta Pandey
Libraries and librarians are no longer the sole providers of reference and information services. Reference services have traditionally played a... Sample PDF
Managing Change in Reference and Information Services in Digital Environment
Chapter 10
Bharat Kumar
This chapter discusses digital libraries and repositories. The purpose of this research is to identify digital libraries and repositories in India... Sample PDF
Digital Library and Repositories: An Indian Initiative
Chapter 11
Anup Kumar Das, B. K. Sen, Chaitali Dutta
Digital library provides an excellent opportunity to widely disseminate our documentary heritages and greatly increases access to library... Sample PDF
Collaborative Digital Library Development in India: A Network Analysis
Chapter 12
Jaideep Sharma
This chapter explains the concept of IPR. The author throws light on the global problem of copyright violation and software piracy and discuss the... Sample PDF
Intellectual Property Rights
Chapter 13
Ramesh C. Gaur
It is estimated that India possesses more than five million manuscripts on varied subjects lying scattered or fragmented in India and foreign... Sample PDF
Facilitating Access to Indian Cultural Heritage: Copyright, Permission Rights and Ownership Issues vis-à-vis IGNCA Collections
Chapter 14
M. Ishwara Bhatt
Rural poor people particularly in developing countries do not get the knowledge and information which they need for their day to day living. Yet... Sample PDF
Harnessing Technology for Providing Knowledge for Development: New Role for Libraries
Chapter 15
Pradip Kumar Upadhyay, Madaswamy Moni
Rural Connectivity is the lifeline of Indian economy. India is a land of diversity with different types of terrain, various agro-climatic... Sample PDF
Digital Library And E-Governance: Moving Towards Sustainable Rural Livelihoods
Chapter 16
Leila Nemati Anaraki, Azadeh Heidari
Recent developments in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), while making our life easier, created a social divide that is known as the... Sample PDF
Bridging the Digital Divide: A Review of Critical Factors in Developing Countries
Chapter 17
Shampa Paul
This chapter aims at identifying and analyzing the factors that have resulted in a digital divide in Asia-Pacific countries. There are several... Sample PDF
Digital Divide and Economic Wealth: Evidence from Asia-Pacific Countries
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