The DODDEL Model: A Flexible Document-Oriented Model for the Design of Serious Games

The DODDEL Model: A Flexible Document-Oriented Model for the Design of Serious Games

Mark McMahon (Edith Cowan University, Australia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-360-9.ch007
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This chapter proposes a document-oriented instructional design model to inform the development of serious games. The model has key features in that it promotes a theoretically inclusive approach to learning, a focus on game elements and an emphasis on documentation to provide the rigour necessary to be used as part of a broader project management model. The model defines increasingly granular stages leading to final production documentation for software development. Each design stage contains a series of iterative co-dependent elements. It is proposed that the model can form a base for prescribing and managing activities within an industry context but also as a means to teach the instructional design process for serious games within a higher education setting. A case study of the initial implementation of the model is discussed in order to contextualise it and provide a basis for future enhancement.
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A Proposal For A Design Model For Serious Games

There is some precedent when exploring instructional models that may have value in the design of serious games. Ryder (2003) lists a range of models, some of which are quite prescriptive in nature. The vast majority however can be more effectively described as approaches, since he includes reference to fundamental psychological approaches as well as general guidelines which would underpin the design and development process, including Bloom’s Taxonomy of cognitive outcomes and Keller’s ARCS theory of motivation. Many of these have potential to be integrated into a model for serious games design, particularly those that focus on experiential aspects of design such as motivation, flow, and end-user attributes.

These features tend to form the focus of game design models. The MDA model for example (Hunicke, LeBlanc & Zubek, 2004) provides a simple framework for game design based upon three components of:

  • Mechanics, describing the components of the game that can be represented as algorithms;

  • Dynamics, the interaction of the game based upon user input over time; and

  • Aesthetics, describing the intended emotional responses evoked in the player throughout gameplay.

Björk, Lundgren, and Holopainen (2003) provide another model that is deliberately ‘interaction-centric’, using game ‘patterns’ as an approach to articulate the gameplay underpinning design. Such models are inherently game oriented but provide little benefit to the instructional designer, who may be guided primarily by stated learning outcomes rather than an archetypal form of gameplay.

Complete Chapter List

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Table of Contents
Kurt Squire
Thomas Connolly, Mark Stansfield, Liz Boyle
Chapter 1
Stephen Tang, Martin Hanneghan, Abdennour El Rhalibi
Games-based learning takes advantage of gaming technologies to create a fun, motivating, and interactive virtual learning environment that promotes... Sample PDF
Introduction to Games-Based Learning
Chapter 2
Nicola Whitton
This chapter examines the rationale for the use of computer games in learning, teaching, and assessment in Higher Education. It considers their... Sample PDF
Learning and Teaching with Computer Games in Higher Education
Chapter 3
Daniel Livingstone, Jeremy Kemp, Edmund Edgar, Chris Surridge, Peter Bloomfield
Alongside the growth of interest in Games-Based Learning, there has been a notable explosion of interest in the use of 3D graphical multi-user... Sample PDF
Multi-User Virtual Environments for Learning Meet Learning Management
Chapter 4
Jean-Charles Marty, Thibault Carron, Jean-Mathias Heraud
In this chapter, the authors propose a Game-Based LMS called the pedagogical dungeon equipped with cooperation abilities for particular activities.... Sample PDF
Observation as a Requisite for Game-Based Learning Environments
Chapter 5
Marco A. Gómez-Martín, Pedro P. Gómez-Martín, Pedro A. González-Calero
A key challenge to move forward the state of the art in games-based learning systems is to facilitate instructional content creation by the domain... Sample PDF
Content Integration in Games-Based Learning Systems
Chapter 6
Matt Seeney, Helen Routledge
One of the most important differentiators between Commercial Games and Serious Games is content; delivered in a way that is successfully integrated... Sample PDF
Drawing Circles in the Sand: Integrating Content into Serious Games
Chapter 7
Mark McMahon
This chapter proposes a document-oriented instructional design model to inform the development of serious games. The model has key features in that... Sample PDF
The DODDEL Model: A Flexible Document-Oriented Model for the Design of Serious Games
Chapter 8
Daniel Burgos, Christof van Nimwegen
Serious games are suitable for learning. They are a good environment for improving the learning experience. As a key part of this setting, feedback... Sample PDF
Games-Based Learning, Destination Feedback and Adaptation: A Case Study of an Educational Planning Simulation
Chapter 9
Patrick Felicia, Ian Pitt
For a long time, users’ emotions and behaviours have been considered to obstruct rather than to help the cognitive process. Educational systems have... Sample PDF
Profiling Users in Educational Games
Chapter 10
Marco Greco
The use of Role-Playing is becoming prominent in Serious Games due to its positive effects on learning. In this chapter the author will provide a... Sample PDF
The Use of Role–Playing in Learning
Chapter 11
Sanna-Mari Tikka, Marja Kankaanranta, Tuula Nousiainen, Mari Hankala
In the context of computer games, learning is an inherent feature of computer game playing. Computer games can be seen as multimodal texts that... Sample PDF
Telling Stories with Digital Board Games: Narrative Game Worlds in Literacies Learning
Chapter 12
Colin Price
The power of computer game technology is currently being harnessed to produce “serious games”. These “games” are targeted at the education and... Sample PDF
The Path between Pedagogy and Technology: Establishing a Theoretical Basis for the Development of Educational Game Environments
Chapter 13
Sara de Freitas, Steve Jarvis
This chapter reviews some of the key research supporting the use of serious games for training in work contexts. The review indicates why serious... Sample PDF
Towards a Development Approach to Serious Games
Chapter 14
Pieter Wouters, Erik D. van der Spek, Herre van Oostendorp
Despite scant empirical substantiation, serious games are in widespread use. The authors review 28 studies with empirical data from a learning... Sample PDF
Current Practices in Serious Game Research: A Review from a Learning Outcomes Perspective
Chapter 15
Thomas Connolly, Mark Stansfield, Thomas Hainey
The field of games-based learning (GBL) has a dearth of empirical evidence supporting the validity of the approach (Connolly, Stansfield, & Hainey... Sample PDF
Towards the Development of a Games-Based Learning Evaluation Framework
Chapter 16
Helen Routledge
Based on real-world experiences using a variety of digital games, this chapter presents a guide for teachers on how to use games-based learning in... Sample PDF
Games-Based Learning in the Classroom and How it can Work!
Chapter 17
Elizabeth A. Boyle, Thomas Connolly
Developing educational computer games that will appeal to both males and females adds an additional level of complexity to an already complicated... Sample PDF
Games for Learning: Does Gender Make a Difference?
Chapter 18
Maria Saridaki, Dimitris Gouscos, Michael G. Meimaris
Students with Intellectual Disability (ID) are often described as “slow learners” and cannot easily integrate to the normal curriculum. Still, the... Sample PDF
Digital Games-Based Learning for Students with Intellectual Disability
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