An overview of the drive by wire technology is presented along with in-depth coverage of salient drive by systems such as throttle-by-wire, brake-by-wire, and steer-by-wire systems, and hybrid-electric propulsion. A review of drive by wire system benefits in performance enhancements and vehicle active safety is then discussed. This is followed by in-depth coverage of technological challenges that must be overcome before drive-by-wire systems can be production ready. Current state of the art of possible solutions to these technological hurdles is then discussed. Future trends in the drive-by-wire systems and economic and commercialization aspects of these system are presented at the conclusion of the chapter.