Dynamics and Simulation of General Human and Humanoid Motion in Sports

Dynamics and Simulation of General Human and Humanoid Motion in Sports

Veljko Potkonjak (University of Belgrade, Serbia), Miomir Vukobratovic (Institute M. Pupin, Serbia), Kalman Babkovic (University of Novi Sad, Serbia) and Branislav Borovac (University of Novi Sad, Serbia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-406-4.ch003
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This chapter relates biomechanics to robotics. The mathematical models are derived to cover the kinematics and dynamics of virtually any motion of a human or a humanoid robot. Benefits for humanoid robots are seen in fully dynamic control and a general simulator for the purpose of system designing and motion planning. Biomechanics in sports and medicine can use these as a tool for mathematical analysis of motion and disorders. Better results in sports and improved diagnostics are foreseen. This work is a step towards the biologically-inspired robot control needed for a diversity of tasks expected in humanoids, and robotic assistive devices helping people to overcome disabilities or augment their physical potentials. This text deals mainly with examples coming from sports in order to justify this aspect of research.
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Free-flier motion

We consider a flier as an articulated system consisting of the basic body (the torso) and several branches (head, arms and legs), as shown in Figure 1. Let there be independent joint motions described by joint-angles vector (the terms joint coordinates or internal coordinates are often used). The basic body needs six coordinates to describe its spatial position: , where defines the position of the mass center and are orientation angles (roll, pitch, and yaw). Now, the overall number of degrees of freedom (DOF) for the system is , and the system position is defined by

. (1)
Figure 1.

Unconstrained (free flier) and constrained system

We now consider the drives. It is assumed that each joint motion has its own drive – the torque . Note that in this analysis there is no drive associated to the basic-body coordinates X (this is a real situation with humans and humanoids in “normal” activities, however, in space activities – actions like repairing a space station, etc. – reactive drives are added, attached to the torso; the proposed method for simulation can easily handle this situation). The vector of the joint drives is , and the extended drive vector (N-dimensional) is ; zeros stand for missing basic-body drives.

The dynamic model of the flier has the general form:



Dimensions of the inertial matrix and its submatrices are: , , , , and . Dimensions of the column vectors containing centrifugal, Coriolis’ and gravity effects are: , , and .

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Graham Cuskelly
Nigel Pope, Kerri-Ann L. Kuhn, John J.H. Forster
Chapter 1
John J.H. Forster
One of the major forces shaping modern sport is the application of digital technology. This is transforming the mass consumption, distribution... Sample PDF
Digital Technologies and the Intensification of Economic and Organisational Mechanisms in Commercial Sport
Chapter 2
Sean Reilly, Peter Barron, Vinny Cahill, Kieran Moran, Mads Haahr
The area of computer-augmented sports is large and complex and spans several disciplines. This chapter presents a general-purpose taxonomy of... Sample PDF
A General-Purpose Taxonomy of Computer-Augmented Sports Systems
Chapter 3
Veljko Potkonjak, Miomir Vukobratovic, Kalman Babkovic, Branislav Borovac
This chapter relates biomechanics to robotics. The mathematical models are derived to cover the kinematics and dynamics of virtually any motion of a... Sample PDF
Dynamics and Simulation of General Human and Humanoid Motion in Sports
Chapter 4
Brendan Burkett
Monitoring of player activity within a competition is currently a reality within some high performance sporting teams, and the demand and level of... Sample PDF
Technologies for Monitoring Human Player Activity Within a Competition
Chapter 5
Chee Kwang Quah, Michael Koh, Alex Ong, Hock Soon Seah, Andre Gagalowicz
Through the advancement of electronics technologies, human motion analysis applications span many domains. Existing commercially available magnetic... Sample PDF
Video-Based Motion Capture for Measuring Human Movement
Chapter 6
Amin Ahmadi, David D. Rowlands, Daniel A. James
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Technology to Monitor and Enhance the Performance of a Tennis Player
Chapter 7
Daniel A. James, Andrew Busch, Yuji Ohgi
The testing and monitoring of elite athletes in their natural training and performance environment is a relatively new area of development that has... Sample PDF
Quantitative Assessment of Physical Activity Using Inertial Sensors
Chapter 8
Volker Wulf, Florian ‘Floyd’ Mueller, Eckehard F. Moritz, Gunnar Stevens, Martin R. Gibbs
Augmenting existing sports experiences with computing technology is increasingly gaining attention due to its potential for performance enhancement.... Sample PDF
Computer Supported Collaborative Sports: An Emerging Paradigm
Chapter 9
Florian ‘Floyd’ Mueller
Recent advances in computing technology have contributed to a new trend that merges digital gaming with physical sports activities and combines the... Sample PDF
Digital Sport: Merging Gaming with Sports to Enhance Physical Activities Such as Jogging
Chapter 10
Lauren Silberman
Just at the moment when gaming has achieved broad cultural acceptance, a new way of using commercial sport video games is emerging, which adds a new... Sample PDF
Double Play: How Video Games Mediate Physical Performance for Elite Athletes
Chapter 11
Donald P. Roy, Benjamin D. Goss
The explosion of fantasy sports and the dearth of research about it create a need for investigation in this relatively new form of sport... Sample PDF
A League of Our Own: Empowerment of Sport Consumers Through Fantasy Sports Participation
Chapter 12
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Computational and Robotic Pool
Chapter 13
Scott Bingley, Stephen Burgess
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A Framework for the Adoption of the Internet in Local Sporting Bodies: A Local Sporting Association Example
Chapter 14
Anthony K. Kerr
Globalisation and advances in communications technology have greatly expanded the potential marketplace for professional teams, especially for those... Sample PDF
Online Questionnaires and Interviews as a Successful Tool to Explore Foreign Sports Fandom
Chapter 15
Gaoqi He, Zhigeng Pan, Weimin Pan, Jianfeng Liu
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Virtual Digital Olympic Museum
Chapter 16
Kerri-Ann L. Kuhn
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Chapter 17
Beth A. Cianfrone, James J. Zhang
This chapter introduces the new and unique sport promotional format of sport video game sponsorships and in-game advertising. Information on the... Sample PDF
Sport Video Game Sponsorships and In-Game Advertising
Chapter 18
Mark Lee, Rajendra Mulye, Constantino Stavros
This chapter reports a recent research study involving a sports video game which sought to provide an overview on the use of in-game advertising... Sample PDF
In-Game Advertising: Effectiveness and Consumer Attitudes
Chapter 19
Monica D. Hernandez, Sindy Chapa
The authors’ study examined factors affecting Mexican adolescent’s memory of brand placements contained in advergames. Specifically, two concerns... Sample PDF
The Effect of Arousal on Adolescent's Short-Term Memory of Brand Placements in Sports Advergames
Chapter 20
Ellen L. Bloxsome, Nigel K. Ll. Pope
This chapter presents marketers, sporting management and sports organizations with a technique for analyzing consumer schemas associated with... Sample PDF
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