EKD: An Enterprise Modeling Approach to Support Creativity and Quality in Information Systems and Business Development

EKD: An Enterprise Modeling Approach to Support Creativity and Quality in Information Systems and Business Development

Janis Stirna (Jönköping University, Sweden) and Anne Persson (University of Skövde, Sweden)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-278-7.ch004
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This chapter presents experiences and reflections from using the EKD Enterprise Modeling method in a number of European organizations. The EKD modeling method is presented. The chapter then focuses on the EKD application in practice taking six cases as an example. The authors’ observations and lessons learned are reported concerning general aspects of Enterprise Modeling projects, the EKD modeling language, the participative modeling process, tool support, and issues of Enterprise Model quality. They also discuss a number of current and emerging trends for development of Enterprise Modeling approaches in general and for EKD in particular.
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Enterprise Modeling (EM), or Business Modeling, has for many years been a central theme in information systems engineering research and a number of different methods have been proposed. There are two main reasons for using EM (Persson & Stirna, 2001):

  • Developing the business. This entails developing business vision, strategies, redesigning the way the business operates, developing the supporting information systems, etc.

  • Ensuring the quality of the business. Here the focus is on two issues: (1) sharing the knowledge about the business, its vision and the way it operates, and (2) ensuring the acceptance of business decisions through committing the stakeholders to the decisions made.

Examples of EM methods can be found in (Bajec & Krisper, 2005; Dobson, Blyth & Strens 1994; Castro et al., 2001; Johannesson et al., 1997; Willars, 1993; Bubenko, 1993; Bubenko, Persson & Stirna, 2001, F3 Consortium, 1994; Fox, Chionglo, & Fadel, 1993; Krogstie et al., 2000; Loucopoulos et al., 1997; Yu & Mylopoulos, 1994). Examples of application domains for EM can be found in (Wangler, Persson & Söderström, 2001, Wangler & Persson, 2003; Wangler et al., 2003; Niehaves & Stirna, 2006; Stirna, Persson & Aggestam, 2006; Gustas, Bubenko & Wangler, 1995; Kardasis et al. 1998).

Since the beginning of the 1990-ies, the authors of this paper have been involved in the development, refinement and application of the Enterprise Knowledge Development (EKD) method for EM. During this time we have applied the method in a fair number of cases in a variety of organizations, during which observations have been collected and later analyzed. We have also performed Grounded Theory (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) studies focusing on the intentional and situational factors that influence participatory EM and EM tool usage (Persson & Stirna, 2001; Persson, 2001; Stirna, 2001). The synthesized results of cases and other studies are reported in this paper. The paper focuses on issues related to the EKD modeling language, the EKD modeling process, quality aspects of EM models, and EKD tool support.

The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. In section 2 we present the EKD Enterprise Modeling method. Section 3 describes a number of cases of applying of method. Observations from applying EKD are presented in Section 4, while Section 5 discusses the findings and provides some directions for future work.


Enterprise Knowledge Development (Ekd)

In Scandinavia, methods for Business or Enterprise Modeling (EM) was initially developed in the 1980-ies by Plandata, Sweden (Willars, 1988), and later refined by the Swedish Institute for System Development (SISU). A significant innovation in this strand of EM was the notion of business goals as part of an Enterprise Model, enriching traditional model component types such as entities and business processes. The SISU framework was further developed in the ESPRIT projects F3 – “From Fuzzy to Formal” and ELEKTRA – “Electrical Enterprise Knowledge for Transforming Applications”. The current framework is denoted EKD – “Enterprise Knowledge Development” (Bubenko, Persson & Stirna, 2001; Loucopoulos, et al., 1997).

EKD – Enterprise Knowledge Development method is a representative of the Scandinavian strand of EM methods. It defines the modeling process as a set of guidelines for a participatory way of working and the language for expressing the modeling product.

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Chapter 1
Terry Halpin
When modeling information systems, one often encounters subtyping aspects of the business domain that can prove challenging to implement in either... Sample PDF
Enriched Conceptualization of Subtyping
Chapter 2
Alessandro Artale, C. Maria Keet
This chapter focuses on formally representing life cycle semantics of part-whole relations in conceptual data models by utilizing the temporal... Sample PDF
Essential, Mandatory, and Shared Parts in Conceptual Data Models
Chapter 3
Peter Bollen
In this chapter the authors extend the ORM conceptual modeling language with constructs for capturing the relevant parts of an application ontology... Sample PDF
Extending the ORM Conceptual Schema Language and Design Procedure with Modeling Constructs for Capturing the Domain Ontology
Chapter 4
Janis Stirna, Anne Persson
This chapter presents experiences and reflections from using the EKD Enterprise Modeling method in a number of European organizations. The EKD... Sample PDF
EKD: An Enterprise Modeling Approach to Support Creativity and Quality in Information Systems and Business Development
Chapter 5
Anders Carstensen, Lennart Holmberg, Kurt Sandkuhl, Janis Stirna
This chapter discusses how an Enterprise Modeling approach, namely C3S3P1, has been applied in an automotive supplier company. The chapter... Sample PDF
Integrated Requirement and Solution Modeling: An Approach Based on Enterprise Models
Chapter 6
John Krogstie, Frank Lillehagen
Innovative design is the most important competitive factor for global engineering and manufacturing. Critical challenges include cutting lead times... Sample PDF
Methodologies for Active Knowledge Modeling
Chapter 7
Peretz Shoval, Mark Last, Avihai Yampolsky
In the analysis phase of the information system development, the user requirements are studied, and analysis models are created. In most UML-based... Sample PDF
Data Modeling and Functional Modeling: Examining the Preferred Order of Using UML Class Diagrams and Use Cases
Chapter 8
Mauri Leppänen
A large number of strategies, approaches, meta models, techniques and procedures have been suggested to support method engineering (ME). Most of... Sample PDF
OntoFrame: An Ontological Framework for Method Engineering
Chapter 9
Patrick van Bommel, Stijn Hoppenbrouwers, Erik Proper, Jeroen Roelofs
A process-oriented framework (QoMo) is presented that aims to further the study of analysis and support of processes for modeling. The framework is... Sample PDF
Concepts and Strategies for Quality of Modeling
Chapter 10
John Erickson, Keng Siau
This chapter presents the basic ideas underlying Service Oriented Architecture as well as a brief overview of current research into the phenomena... Sample PDF
Service Oriented Architecture: A Research Review from the Software and Applications Perspective
Chapter 11
Vítor Estêvão Silva Souza, Ricardo de Almeida Falbo, Giancarlo Guizzardi
In the Web Engineering area, many methods and frameworks to support Web Information Systems (WISs) development have already been proposed.... Sample PDF
Designing Web Information Systems for a Framework-Based Construction
Chapter 12
Tony Elliman, Tally Hatzakis, Alan Serrano
This paper discusses the idea that even though information systems development (ISD) approaches have long advocated the use of integrated... Sample PDF
Business Process Simulation: An Alternative Modelling Technique for the Information System Development Process
Chapter 13
Leandro Dias da Silva, Elthon Allex da Silva Oliveira, Hyggo Almeida, Angelo Perkusich
In this chapter a formal agent based approach for the modeling and verification of intelligent information systems using Coloured Petri Nets is... Sample PDF
An Agent Based Formal Approach for Modeling and Verifying Integrated Intelligent Information Systems
Chapter 14
Jan vom Brocke
With the design of reference models, an increase in the efficiency of information systems engineering is intended. This is expected to be achieved... Sample PDF
Design Principles for Reference Modelling: Reusing Information Models by Means of Aggregation, Specialisation, Instantiation and Analogy
Chapter 15
Eleni Berki
Information systems development methodologies and associated CASE tools have been considered as cornerstones for building quality in an information... Sample PDF
Examining the Quality of Evaluation Frameworks and Metamodeling Paradigms of Information Systems Development Methodologies
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