In this chapter we provide an overview of electronic government as it pertains to national security and defense within the Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Homeland Security (DHS). We discuss the adoption of web services and service oriented architectures to aid in information sharing and reduction of Information Technology (IT) costs. We also discuss the networks on which services and resources are being deployed and explain the efforts being made to manage the infrastructure of available services. This chapter provides an overview of e-government for national security and defense and provides insight to current initiatives and future directions.
Electronic government or e-government is also known as e-gov, digital government, and online government. E-government deals mostly with Internet applications to assist in government functionality. Although not a focus of this chapter, the term has also been applied to some non-Internet applications such as citizen tracking systems that deal with omnipresent surveillance and biometric identification (What is e-Government, 2007).
The overall objective of e-government may be characterized as streamlining government operations in some form. This can take a number of forms, including those listed in a 2002 e-government implementation strategy (United States Office of Management and Business[OMB], 2002, p.4), as:
“Eliminating layers of government management.”
“Making it possible for citizens, businesses, other levels of government and federal employees to easily find information and get service from the federal government.”
“Simplifying agencies' business processes and reducing costs through integrating and eliminating redundant systems.”
“Enabling achievement of the other elements of the President’s Management Agenda.”
“Streamlining government operations to guarantee rapid response to citizen needs.”
In the course of achieving e-government, delivery of services may follow a number of models similar to those found in electronic commerce; namely, Government-to-Citizen, Government-to-Business, Government-to-Government and Intra-governmental: Internal Efficiency and Effectiveness (IEE) (OMB, 2002).
The E-Government Handbook (InfoDev and The Center for Democracy and Technology, 2002) organizes the functions of e-Government into three categories: publish, interact and transact.