Emergence of Standardisation Processes: Linkage with Users

Emergence of Standardisation Processes: Linkage with Users

Ian Graham (University of Edinburgh, UK), Raluca Bunduchi (University of Aberdeen, UK), Martina Gerst (University of Edinburgh, UK) and Robin Williams (University of Edinburgh, UK)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-320-3.ch005
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Abstract

For RFID technology (radio frequency identification), the forms of the standardisation processes are co-evolving with the technology and are being shaped by the technology itself and by the needs of users. However, the engagement of the large majority of end-users in standards development is at best limited. Based on semi-structured interviews with key actors in the automotive industry, the chapter discusses the role that RFID standards play in shaping the adoption of RFID systems in the automotive supply chain.
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1. Introduction

The growing importance of standardisation in the development and implementation of innovative information technologies has been matched by a growing complexity of the processes within which these technologies are developed. This complexity is seen in the institutional diversity of processes, including varying membership rules, decision-making procedures and policies towards intellectual property, and also in the emergence of overlapping bodies with interests in emerging technologies. Whereas the conventional model of standardisation was based on national recognised standards organisations, for example BSI (British Standards Institution) in the United Kingdom, developing national standards or feeding requirements into international bodies, most obviously ISO (international Organization for Standardization), we now see actors, both individual and commercial, coming together to establish consortia. This chapter will look at one emerging technology, RFID (radio frequency identification), to argue that the form of the standardisation processes are co-evolving with the technology and are being shaped by the technology itself and by the needs of users.

De Vries (1999) has argued that the primary reason for the flowering of consortia has been the ability of consortia to develop standards more quickly than the traditional standards development processes. Krechmer (2000) argued that the reasons for the growth of standardisation consortia have been more complex, with consortia benefiting from being able to draw on funding from commercially motivated participant firms, being able to locate themselves as the most significant locus for standardisation in their area, having the freedom to negotiate the incorporation of proprietary intellectual property and being able to market themselves as a brand. Krechmer argued that the traditional standardisation processes still enjoyed benefits from being state sponsored, but that the rise of consortia was reducing state involvement in standardisation. Egyedi (2006) argues that this move to consortia, especially where there is an open membership and transparent decision-making, does not lead to a reduction in democratic accountability. However, one effect of the splintering of information technology standardisation is that it presents potential users with an array of standards processes that they can choose to engage with.

This chapter examines the role that standardisation is playing in shaping the adoption of RFID technology and the extent to which the institutional context of standardisation is hampering the technology’s adoption, focusing on the automotive industry, where there is an expectation of RFID having significant impacts but with a low level of engagement with standardisation bodies. The study is based on a qualitative methodology, using semi-structured interviews with key actors to collect the data. The respondents are listed in Appendix 1. The analysis is structured in two parts: we first introduce RFID technologies and standards, and then discuss the role that RFID standards plays in shaping the adoption of RFID systems in the automotive supply chain.

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2. Rfid: An Emerging Technology

RFID is an automatic identification technology that uses radio to read and write data from and to tags attached to items. An RFID system consists of readers and the tags that can be read, supported by computers the handling the interaction between tags and readers and usually interfacing with wider enterprise systems. The antenna within the reader emits radio signals to activate the tag and reads and/or writes data to it. When an RFID tag passes through the electromagnetic zone, it detects the reader’s activation signal. The decoder within the reader decodes the data encoded in the tag’s integrated circuit and the data is passed to the host computer for processing. A tag contains a microchip where the data regarding a particular item is stored. There are three types of RFID operating within different radio frequency ranges: low frequency RFID systems most commonly used in security access, asset tracking, and animal identification applications; high-frequency systems used in applications such as ID cards and electronic tickets; and ultra-high frequency systems which are commonly used in applications such as railway wagon tracking and automated toll collection. The latter offer longer read ranges and higher reading speeds, but they are generally more expensive than low and high frequency systems (Rees, 2004).

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Table of Contents
Preface
Kai Jakobs
Chapter 1
Martina Gerst, Eric Iversen, Kai Jakobs
The chapter argues that any distinction between “e-business” and “infrastructure” is artificial. It shows that the lower-level techncial standards... Sample PDF
An Integrated View of E-Business and the Underlying ICT Infrastructure
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Chapter 2
Knut Blind, Stephan Gauch
The chapter provides an overview and subsequent analysis of the demand for e-government standards in the EU. It describes the requirements for... Sample PDF
The Demand for E-Government Standards
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Chapter 3
Knut Blind
Against the background of theoretical typologies of service standards, a survey among European service companies addressed the question, in which... Sample PDF
A Taxonomy of Service Standards and a Modification for E-Business
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Chapter 4
Richard Hawkins
With specific reference to information and communication technologies (ICT), this Chapter examines the structural relationship of various... Sample PDF
Business Models and the Dynamics of Supply and Demand for Standards
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Chapter 5
Ian Graham, Raluca Bunduchi, Martina Gerst, Robin Williams
For RFID technology (radio frequency identification), the forms of the standardisation processes are co-evolving with the technology and are being... Sample PDF
Emergence of Standardisation Processes: Linkage with Users
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Chapter 6
Kai Jakobs
This chapter briefly outlines a study that looked at potential links between ICT / e-business standards’ origins and their subsequent success in the... Sample PDF
Perceived Relation between ICT Standards' Sources and their Success in the Market
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Chapter 7
Kai Jakobs, Jan Kritzner
The chapter tries to provide the information that potential standards-setters should consider when selecting a standards setting body (SSB). It... Sample PDF
How to Select the Best Platform for ICT Standards Development
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Chapter 8
W. Lemstra, V. Hayes
In this chapter the authors explore and describe the role of the innovating firm in relation to the standards making process of Wireless-Local Area... Sample PDF
The Shaping of the IEEE 802.11 Standard: The Role of the Innovating Firm in the Case of Wi-Fi
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Chapter 9
Tom McGuffog
In this chapter, the evolution of e.business is described. The ever-changing balance between demand and supply is outlined. The conclusion is... Sample PDF
The Evolution of e.Business: Can Technology Supply Meet the Full Business Demand?
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Chapter 10
Mingzhi Li, Kai Reimers
This chapter analyses and evaluates the Chinese government’s 3G policy of supporting the creation and implementation of the country’s indigenous... Sample PDF
China's Practice of Implementing a 3G Mobile Telecommunications Standard: A Transaction Costs Perspective
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Chapter 11
Akio Tokuda
To develop automobiles that fulfill the criteria of “environment-friendliness” “advanced safety”, and“riding comfort”, coordination between ECUs... Sample PDF
International Framework for Collaboration between European and Japanese Standard Consortia: The Case of the Automotive LAN Protocol
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Chapter 12
Tineke M. Egyedi
There is a continuous pressure for improvement in e-business. Increasing technical possibilities, new forms of outsourcing, the ongoing integration... Sample PDF
Between Supply and Demand: Coping with the Impact of Standards Change
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Chapter 13
Mogens Kühn Pedersen, Vladislav V. Fomin, Henk J. de Vries
The fast growth in globalization stimulates the trend of open standards and challenges governments in devising policies for the national information... Sample PDF
Open Standards and Government Policy
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Chapter 14
Ioannis P. Chochliouros, Anastasia S. Spiliopoulou, Tilemachos D. Doukoglou, Elpida Chochliourou
The European Authorities have promoted a specific and innovative framework for the use of electronic signatures, allowing the free flow of... Sample PDF
Developing Measures and Standards for the European Electronic Signatures Market
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Chapter 15
Esther Ruiz Ben
In recent years, the ICT branch has experienced new internationalization impulses through the improvement of offshore practices. Particularly the... Sample PDF
Quality Standardization Patterns in ICT Offshore
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Chapter 16
Manuel Mora, Ovsei Gelman, Rory O’Connor, Francisco Alvarez, Jorge Macías-Luévano
This chapter develops a descriptive-conceptual overview of the main models and standards of processes formulated in the systems engineering (SE)... Sample PDF
An Overview of Models and Standards of Processes in the SE, SwE, and IS Disciplines
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Chapter 17
Martina Gerst, Kai Jakobs
Successful cooperation between large manufacturers and their suppliers is a crucial aspect, especially in the automotive industry. Such mutually... Sample PDF
E-Business Standardization in the Automotive Sector: Role and Situation of SMEs
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