Emotional Ambient Media

Emotional Ambient Media

Artur Lugmayr (Tampere University of Technology, Finland), Tillmann Dorsch (Tampere University of Technology, Finland) and Pabo Roman Humanes (Tampere University of Technology, Finland)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-354-8.ch022
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The “medium is the message”: nowadays the medium as such is non-distinguishable from its presentation environment. However, what is the medium in an ambient environment, when the environment is smart, recognizes emotions, and at the same time responsive? Emotions have had an inferior role in philosophy, psychology, art, and nowadays in media technology. In philosophy and psychology many researchers devoted their work to the question what emotions are, and how they can be modelled, ranging from common-sense theories, theories that emotions are simply physiological disturbances, and the many behaviour theories describing emotions providing a much more comprehensive view on emotions (Solomon, 1977). In the age of ambient media, where media technology is embedded seamlessly and hidden into the natural environment of the consumer, the view towards media is changing. The modality how emotions are experienced and the technology to recognize and simulate emotions are changing. To support the theories within the scope of this chapter, a case study – the emotional ambient responsive character – has been performed. The concept was realised as a simple interactive game responding to human emotions. Within this book section, we present a technical oriented view towards recognizing, simulating, and binding emotions in ambient media systems. A case-study for an emotion recognition and response system is presented. The system integrates the content and emotion recognition elements.
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Within the scope of this book chapter the fields of emotional computation, affective computation, psychology, very slightly the field of philosophy, and ubiquitous- and pervasive computation are touched. The main background relies on the development of ambient media based on media technology coming from ambient intelligence. Current research in the field of emotional computation focuses around these questions:

  • What is the relation between emotions and experience?

  • How can emotional machines be modelled and implemented?

  • What is the meaning of emotions in art and media?

  • How can emotions and affects be recognized and generated?

  • What are the linguistic and non-linguistic aspects of emotions?

  • How can emotion classification based on media be performed?

  • Which methods for evaluation of emotional impact,

  • How can the affect of emotions be classified, evaluated, and measured?

  • What are the linguistic aspects of emotions in text, speech, and media?

  • Which models for factors impacting emotions exist (e.g. personality traits)?

  • How can emotions be described, generated, parsed, and managed?

  • What is the effect on human-computer or human-human interaction?

  • How can emotional computation be applied in specific applications (e.g. gaming)

  • Which new forms of dialogue systems involving emotion patterns emerge?

  • What is the impact of emotions on cognitive robotics and multi-agent systems?

Originally media are delivered via distinguishable entities to the consumer (e.g. video stream, audio stream, image). In the age of ambient media, the entity that is perceived by the consumer is by far more complex to describe. A first definition for ambient media has been made by A. Lugmayr in (Lugmayr, 2007), and the form of ambient media can be described as “particular way in which ambient media assets physically exist or manifest themselves, morph the natural environment entities with the synthetic artificial created world, collaborate with each other, and intelligence of arrangements (composition) and contextualization of media assets and their sub-components as an artistic or factual genre for the creation of human experience”. Thus, the message of the medium is transmitted via any arbitrary signalling information – therefore the message of the ambient media system can be embedded anywhere – as ambient light in a living room, as intelligent car, as a smart phone recognizing the context of the consumer.

Especially media technology developed the need to gain understanding of several different aspects of emotions. Therefore this book section especially matches emotional binding to the media with the latest trends in the development of ambient media technology. It evaluates existing theories coming from philosophy and psychology in emotional research to adopt these with the needs of ambient media systems. From the technical view, a basic model for experience and emotion oriented computation in the field of ambient media is presented. Different existing methods and technologies are evaluated and presented. This includes techniques and methods for the recognition of human emotions. For many years the recognition of human emotions was major research field in artificial intelligence. After the disillusions in the field of AI, in recent decades, many questions where untouched. However, with the emergence of ambient intelligence, the field became a new retouch, and emotional computations gained importance as a major research field.

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Craig DeLancey
Jordi Vallverdú, David Casacuberta
Chapter 1
Oscar Deniz, Javier Lorenzo, Mario Hernández, Modesto Castrillón
Social intelligence seems to obviously require emotions. People have emotions, recognize them in others and also express them. A wealth of... Sample PDF
Emotional Modeling in an Interactive Robotic Head
Chapter 2
Cyril Laurier, Perfecto Herrera
Creating emotionally sensitive machines will significantly enhance the interaction between humans and machines. In this chapter we focus on enabling... Sample PDF
Automatic Detection of Emotion in Music: Interaction with Emotionally Sensitive Machines
Chapter 3
Christoph Bartneck, Michael J. Lyons
The human face plays a central role in most forms of natural human interaction so we may expect that computational methods for analysis of facial... Sample PDF
Facial Expression Analysis, Modeling and Synthesis: Overcoming the Limitations of Artificial Intelligence with the Art of the Soluble
Chapter 4
Sajal Chandra Banik, Keigo Watanabe, Maki K. Habib, Kiyotaka Izumi
Multi-robot team work is necessary for complex tasks which cannot be performed by a single robot. To get the required performance and reliability... Sample PDF
Multirobot Team Work with Benevolent Characters: The Roles of Emotions
Chapter 5
Matthias Scheutz, Paul Schermerhorn
Effective decision-making under real-world conditions can be very difficult as purely rational methods of decision-making are often not feasible or... Sample PDF
Affective Goal and Task Selection for Social Robots
Chapter 6
Christopher P. Lee-Johnson, Dale A. Carnegie
The hypothesis that artificial emotion-like mechanisms can improve the adaptive performance of robots and intelligent systems has gained... Sample PDF
Robotic Emotions: Navigation with Feeling
Chapter 7
C. Gros
All self-active living beings need to solve the motivational problem—the question of what to do at any moment of their life. For humans and... Sample PDF
Emotions, Diffusive Emotional Control and the Motivational Problem for Autonomous Cognitive Systems
Chapter 8
Bruce J. MacLennan
This chapter addresses the “Hard Problem” of consciousness in the context of robot emotions. The Hard Problem, as defined by Chalmers, refers to the... Sample PDF
Robots React, but Can They Feel?
Chapter 9
Mercedes García-Ordaz, Rocío Carrasco-Carrasco, Francisco José Martínez-López
It is contended here that the emotional elements and features of human reasoning should be taken into account when designing the personality of... Sample PDF
Personality and Emotions in Robotics from the Gender Perspective
Chapter 10
Antoni Gomila, Alberto Amengual
In this chapter we raise some of the moral issues involved in the current development of robotic autonomous agents. Starting from the connection... Sample PDF
Moral Emotions for Autonomous Agents
Chapter 11
Pietro Cipresso, Jean-Marie Dembele, Marco Villamira
In this work, we present an analytical model of hyper-inflated economies and develop a computational model that permits us to consider expectations... Sample PDF
An Emotional Perspective for Agent-Based Computational Economics
Chapter 12
Michel Aubé
The Commitment Theory of Emotions is issued from a careful scrutiny of emotional behavior in humans and animals, as reported in the literature on... Sample PDF
Unfolding Commitments Management: A Systemic View of Emotions
Chapter 13
Sigerist J. Rodríguez, Pilar Herrero, Olinto J. Rodríguez
Today, realism and coherence are highly searched qualities in agent’s behavior; but these qualities cannot be achieved completely without... Sample PDF
A Cognitive Appraisal Based Approach for Emotional Representation
Chapter 14
Clément Raïevsky, François Michaud
Emotion plays several important roles in the cognition of human beings and other life forms, and is therefore a legitimate inspiration for providing... Sample PDF
Emotion Generation Based on a Mismatch Theory of Emotions for Situated Agents
Chapter 15
Artificial Surprise  (pages 267-291)
Luis Macedo, Amilcar Cardoso, Rainer Reisenzein, Emiliano Lorini
This chapter reviews research on computational models of surprise. Part 1 begins with a description of the phenomenon of surprise in humans, reviews... Sample PDF
Artificial Surprise
Chapter 16
Tom Adi
A new theory of emotions is derived from the semantics of the language of emotions. The sound structures of 36 Old Arabic word roots that express... Sample PDF
A Theory of Emotions Based on Natural Language Semantics
Chapter 17
Huma Shah, Kevin Warwick
The Turing Test, originally configured as a game for a human to distinguish between an unseen and unheard man and woman, through a text-based... Sample PDF
Emotion in the Turing Test: A Downward Trend for Machines in Recent Loebner Prizes
Chapter 18
Félix Francisco Ramos Corchado, Héctor Rafael Orozco Aguirre, Luis Alfonso Razo Ruvalcaba
Emotions play an essential role in the cognitive processes of an avatar and are a crucial element for modeling its perception, learning, decision... Sample PDF
Artificial Emotional Intelligence in Virtual Creatures
Chapter 19
Sarantos I. Psycharis
In our study we collected data with respect to cognitive variables (learning outcome), metacognitive indicators (knowledge about cognition and... Sample PDF
Physics and Cognitive-Emotional-Metacognitive Variables: Learning Performance in the Environment of CTAT
Chapter 20
Anthony G. Francis Jr., Manish Mehta, Ashwin Ram
Believable agents designed for long-term interaction with human users need to adapt to them in a way which appears emotionally plausible while... Sample PDF
Emotional Memory and Adaptive Personalities
Chapter 21
Dorel Gorga, Daniel K. Schneider
The purpose of this contribution is to discuss conceptual issues and challenges related to the integration of emotional agents in the design of... Sample PDF
Computer-Based Learning Environments with Emotional Agents
Chapter 22
Emotional Ambient Media  (pages 443-459)
Artur Lugmayr, Tillmann Dorsch, Pabo Roman Humanes
The “medium is the message”: nowadays the medium as such is non-distinguishable from its presentation environment. However, what is the medium in an... Sample PDF
Emotional Ambient Media
Chapter 23
Jordi Vallverdú, David Casacuberta
During the previous stage of our research we developed a computer simulation (called ‘The Panic Room’ or, more simply, ‘TPR’) dealing with synthetic... Sample PDF
Modelling Hardwired Synthetic Emotions: TPR 2.0
Chapter 24
Cecile K.M. Crutzen, Hans-Werner Hein
A vision of future daily life is explored in Ambient Intelligence (AmI). It follows the assumption that information technology should disappear into... Sample PDF
Invisibility and Visibility: The Shadows of Artificial Intelligence
About the Contributors