End-User Quality of Experience-Aware Personalized E-Learning

End-User Quality of Experience-Aware Personalized E-Learning

Cristina Hava Muntean (National College of Ireland, Ireland) and Gabriel-Miro Muntean (Dublin City University, Ireland)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-136-0.ch018
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Abstract

Lately, user quality of experience (QoE) during their interaction with a system is a significant factor in the assessment of most systems. However, user QoE is dependent not only on the content served to the users, but also on the performance of the service provided. This chapter describes a novel QoE layer that extends the features of classic adaptive e-learning systems in order to consider delivery performance in the adaptation process and help in providing good user perceived QoE during the learning process. An experimental study compared a classic adaptive e-learning system with one enhanced with the proposed QoE layer. The result analysis compares learner outcome, learning performance, visual quality and usability of the two systems and shows how the QoE layer brings significant benefits to user satisfaction improving the overall learning process.
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Introduction

It is widely acknowledged that e-learners differ in skills, aptitudes and preferences, may have different perceptions of the same factors and some of them may have special needs due to disabilities. People also seek different information when accessing Web-based educational systems and may prefer certain learning styles. Therefore, various adaptive and personalized e-learning systems such as ApeLS (Conlan & Wade, 2004), WINDS (Specht et al., 2002), iClass (O’Keeffe, 2006), INSPIRE (Papanikolaou et al., 2003) and AES-CS (Triantafillou et al., 2002) were proposed in order to capture and analyze these user-related features, and personalize the educational material thus optimizing users’ learning experience.

With the latest communication-oriented devices like smart phones, PDAs, laptops and network technologies such as 3G, WiFi, IEEE 802.11 family of standards (IEEE802.11, 1999), WiMax, IEEE 802.16 family (IEEE802.16, 2004), e-learners can access personalized information “anytime and anywhere.” However, the network environments allowing this universal access have widely varying performance-related characteristics such as bandwidth, level of congestion, mobility support and cost of transmission.

It is unrealistic to expect that the personalized content delivery quality can be maintained at the same level in this variable environment. Rather an effort must be made to tailor the material served to each person to their operational environment including current network delivery conditions, ensuring high quality of experience (QoE) during the learning process.

QoE focuses on the learner and is considered in (Empirix, 2003) as a collection of all the perception elements of the network and performance relative to users’ expectations. The QoE concept applies to any kind of network interaction such as Web navigation, multimedia streaming, voice over IP, etc. Different QoE metrics that assess user experience with the systems in term of responsiveness and availability have been proposed. QoE metrics may involve subjective elements and may be influenced by any sub-system between the service provider and the end-user.

It should be noted that some adaptive e-learning systems have already taken into consideration performance features such as device capabilities, the type of access to the network, download time, etc. in order to improve learning QoE (Chou et al., 2004; Brady et al., 2004; Smyth & Cotter, 2002; Apostolopoulos & Kefala, 2003). However, these account for only a limited range of factors affecting QoE. Also, they were considered separately one from another, unlike the real life situation when there is a simultaneous influence on user interaction with the e-learning systems.

In order to address the effect the complex operational environment has on e-learning, a detailed analysis of the key factors that affect learner QoE was conducted. A QoE adaptation layer that extends the adaptation features of classic e-learning systems was proposed. It aims to provide high level QoE when users engage in a learning process via network environments with variable connectivity characteristics.

This chapter presents, in details, the proposed QoE layer in the context of a classic architecture for adaptive e-learning systems (AeLS). The most significant AeLS proposed to date are presented in the “Related Work” section that also includes a summarization of the methods most often used in AeLS evaluation. Results of a detailed experimental study that involved a well-known AeLS and a version of the same system enhanced with the proposed QoE layer are then presented. The consequent result analysis compares learner outcome, learning performance, usability and visual quality of the two systems and shows how the QoE layer brings significant benefits to the learning process. The chapter ends with conclusions.

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Table of Contents
Preface
Steve Clarke
Chapter 1
Jeremy Fowler
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Chapter 2
Jeanette Eriksson, Yvonne Dittrich
This chapter reports on a case study performed in cooperation with a telecommunication provider. The telecom business changes rapidly as new... Sample PDF
Achieving Sustainable Tailorable Software Systems by Collaboration Between End-Users and Developers
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Chapter 3
Marvin D. Troutt, Douglas A. Druckenmiller, William Acar
This chapter uses some special usability and ethical issues that arise from experience with what can be called captive end-user systems (CEUS).... Sample PDF
Usability, Testing, and Ethical Issues in Captive End-User Systems
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Chapter 4
Jonathan P. Caulkins, Erica Layne Morrison, Timothy Weidemann
Spreadsheets are commonly used and commonly flawed, but it is not clear how often spreadsheet errors lead to bad decisions. We interviewed 45... Sample PDF
Do Spreadsheet Errors Lead to Bad Decisions? Perspectives of Executives and Senior Managers
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Chapter 5
Lixuan Zhang, Randall Young, Victor Prybutok
The means by which the U.S. justice system attempts to control illegal hacking are practiced under the assumption that hacking is like any other... Sample PDF
A Comparison of the Inhibitors of Hacking vs. Shoplifting
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Chapter 6
Dewi Rooslani Tojib
he last decade has seen the proliferation of business-to-employee (B2E) portals as integrated, efficient, and user-friendly technology platform to... Sample PDF
Developing Success Measure for Staff Portal Implementation
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Chapter 7
Peter Baloh
Improving how knowledge is leveraged in organizations for improved business performance is currently considered as a major organizational change.... Sample PDF
Contingencies in the KMS Design: A Tentative Design Model
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Chapter 8
Beryl Burns
We report the findings of a field study of the enactment of ICT supported knowledge work in a Human Resources contact centre, illustrating the... Sample PDF
Users as Developers: A Field Study of Call Centre Knowledge Work
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Chapter 9
Raymond R. Panko
This chapter describes two experiments that examined overconfidence in spreadsheet development. Overconfidence has been seen widely in spreadsheet... Sample PDF
Two Experiments in Reducing Overconfidence in Spreadsheet Development
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Chapter 10
Steven John Simon, David Paper
Voice recognition technology-enabled devices possess extraordinary growth potential, yet some research indicates that organizations and consumers... Sample PDF
User Acceptance of Voice Recognition Technology: An Empirical Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model
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Chapter 11
Peter P. Mykytyn
Colleges of business have dealt with teaching computer literacy and advanced computer application concepts for many years, often with much... Sample PDF
Educating Our Students in Computer Application Concepts: A Case for Problem-Based Learning
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Chapter 12
Elaine H. Ferneley
End user development (EUD) of system applications is typically undertaken by end users for their own, or closely aligned colleagues, business needs.... Sample PDF
Covert End User Development: A Study of Success
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Chapter 13
Steven Hornik, Richard D. Johnson, Yu Wu
Central to the design of successful virtual learning initiatives is the matching of technology to the needs of the training environment. The... Sample PDF
When Technology Does Not Support Learning: Conflicts Between Epistemological Beliefs and Technology Support in Virtual Learning Environments
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Chapter 14
Tom Butler
The study’s objective is to arrive at a theoretical model and framework to guide research into the implementation of KMS, while also seeking to... Sample PDF
A Theoretical Model and Framework for Understanding Knowledge Management System Implementation
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Chapter 15
Jun Xu, Mohammed Quaddus
This chapter develops a model of adoption and continued use of knowledge management systems (KMSs), which is primarily built on Rogers’ (1995)... Sample PDF
Exploring the Factors Influencing End Users' Acceptance of Knowledge Management Systems: Development of a Research Model of Adoption and Continued Use
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Chapter 16
Wei-Na Lee
In today’s global environment, a myriad of communication mechanisms enable cultures around the world to interact with one another and form complex... Sample PDF
Classifying Web Users: A Cultural Value-Based Approach
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Chapter 17
Annette Hallin, Kristina Lundevall
This chapter presents the mCity Project, a project owned by the City of Stockholm, aiming at creating user-friendly mobile services in collaboration... Sample PDF
mCity: User Focused Development of Mobile Services Within the City of Stockholm
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Chapter 18
Cristina Hava Muntean, Gabriel-Miro Muntean
Lately, user quality of experience (QoE) during their interaction with a system is a significant factor in the assessment of most systems. However... Sample PDF
End-User Quality of Experience-Aware Personalized E-Learning
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Chapter 19
High-Tech Meets End-User  (pages 302-320)
Marc Steen
One challenge within the high-tech sector is to develop products that end users will actually need and will be able to use. One way of trying to... Sample PDF
High-Tech Meets End-User
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About the Contributors