Energy-Efficiency in Cloud Computing Environments: Towards Energy Savings without Performance Degradation

Energy-Efficiency in Cloud Computing Environments: Towards Energy Savings without Performance Degradation

Ismael Solis Moreno (University of Leeds, UK) and Jie Xu (University of Leeds, UK)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-1879-4.ch002
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Due to all the pollutants generated during its production and the steady increases in its rates, energy consumption is causing serious environmental and economic problems. In this context, the growing use and adoption of ICTs is being highlighted not only as one as the principal problem sources but also as one of the principal areas that could help in the problem’s reduction. Cloud computing is an emerging model for distributed utility computing and is being considered as an attractive opportunity for saving energy through central management of computational resources. To be successful, the design of energy-efficient mechanisms must start playing a mayor role. This paper argues the importance of energy-efficient mechanisms within cloud data centers and remarks on the significance of the “energy-performance” relationship in boosting the adoption of these mechanisms in real scenarios. It provides an analysis of the current approaches and the outline of key opportunities that need to be addressed to improve the “energy-performance” relationship in this promising model.
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Many people today are devoted to a widespread adoption of Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs). However, due to the priorities of both providers and consumers, this has been focused principally on aspects such as processing speed, bandwidth, transfer rate, storage and memory capacity just to mention only a few, the environmental impact of their use has been relegated until recent years, when changing climate patterns and pollution problems have become high priority in the world’s nations’ agendas.

The increasing accumulation of greenhouse gases is changing the world’s climate, creating serious problems such as droughts, floods and higher temperatures. In order to stop the accumulation of these gases in the atmosphere, it is necessary to stop the global growth of emissions, in which the generation of electricity plays a major role not only because of the carbon dioxide which results from the coal and oil used in this process, but also because it releases sulphurs and other pollutants into the atmosphere.

Additionally to the ICTs environmental repercussions, the worldwide economy is also being affected by the steady increases in electricity rates. The number of “smart” devices, peripherals, computers, data centers and the amount of communications are rapidly growing along with the electricity cost required to feed them. This problem is more perceptible within the industries and enterprises which have to support large amounts of computing infrastructure normally represented by enormous data centers provided with powerful cooling systems that also require great amounts of energy to work.

In this context, cloud computing an emerging model for distributed utility computing which is normally represented by large and power-consuming data centers designed to support the elasticity and scalability required by its customers. Cloud computing is becoming commercially attractive and its use is growing since it promises reducing the maintenance and management costs in comparison with traditional data centers. However, and despite that one of cloud computing commercial credentials is the reduction of energy consumption for customers, it still represents a serious problem for providers who have to deal with increasing demand and performance expectations. This creates the need for mechanisms to improve the energy-efficiency of cloud computing data centers while preserving desired levels of operation.

Green IT emerges as a new perspective for designing, developing and managing computing infrastructure aiming for more efficient processes and mechanisms to avoid waste of resources and considering the environmental implications of its use and disposal. Regarding with energy efficiency, a branch of Green IT named Energy-aware computing which is normally applied in embedded systems where strong energy constraints exist, has came forward to change the high-level computing systems point of view from “performance-mainly” to “performance-energy” balanced systems reducing the cost by an improved use of resources and the impact to the environment by diminishing the energy consumed while QoS is maintained.

Currently, some approaches have arisen to contribute to energy-efficiency improvement for data centers. Specifically, cloud computing approaches are exploiting the advantages of virtualization technology to maximize the use of underlying physical resources, dynamically resizing computing power in proportion to the customers’ requirements. However these approaches do not consider some variables that in real cloud computing scenarios could lead to performance degradations or failures. These variables represent challenges that should be addressed to boost the adoption of these mechanisms in real scenarios where customer satisfaction has priority.

This paper argues about the importance of energy-efficient mechanisms within cloud data centers and remarks the “energy-performance” relationship significance. First, it describes how ICTs are negatively impacting the environment. Then green and cloud computing are introduced. Finally, the importance of energy-efficient mechanisms in cloud computing, the analysis of current approaches and the identified opportunities in this area are presented.

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Shadi Aljawarneh
Shadi Aljawarneh
Chapter 1
Junaid Arshad, Paul Townend, Jie Xu
Cloud computing is an emerging computing paradigm which introduces novel opportunities to establish large scale, flexible computing infrastructures.... Sample PDF
An Abstract Model for Integrated Intrusion Detection and Severity Analysis for Clouds
Chapter 2
Ismael Solis Moreno, Jie Xu
Due to all the pollutants generated during its production and the steady increases in its rates, energy consumption is causing serious environmental... Sample PDF
Energy-Efficiency in Cloud Computing Environments: Towards Energy Savings without Performance Degradation
Chapter 3
Luis M. Vaquero, Juan Cáceres, Daniel Morán
This paper presents a brief overview of the available literature on distributed systems scalability that serves as a justification for presenting... Sample PDF
The Challenge of Service Level Scalability for the Cloud
Chapter 4
Zhiwei Xu, Bo Yan, Yongqiang Zou
As a main subfield of cloud computing applications, internet services require large-scale data computing. Their workloads can be divided into two... Sample PDF
Beyond Hadoop: Recent Directions in Data Computing for Internet Services
Chapter 5
Hong Cai, Berthold Reinwald, Ning Wang, Chang Jie Guo
SaaS (Software as a Service) provides new business opportunities for application providers to serve more customers in a scalable and cost-effective... Sample PDF
SaaS Multi-Tenancy: Framework, Technology, and Case Study
Chapter 6
P. Sasikala
Cloud Computing promises novel and valuable capabilities for computer users and is explored in all possible areas of information technology... Sample PDF
Cloud Computing in Higher Education: Opportunities and Issues
Chapter 7
Roland Kübert, Gregory Katsaros
Even though public cloud providers already exist and offer computing and storage services, cloud computing is still a buzzword for scientists in... Sample PDF
Using Free Software for Elastic Web Hosting on a Private Cloud
Chapter 8
Louay Karadsheh, Samer Alhawari
Over a decade ago, cloud computing became an important topic for small and large businesses alike. The new concept promises scalability, security... Sample PDF
Applying Security Policies in Small Business Utilizing Cloud Computing Technologies
Chapter 9
Victor Chang, Chung-Sheng Li, David De Roure, Gary Wills, Robert John Walters, Clinton Chee
This paper demonstrates financial enterprise portability, which involves moving entire application services from desktops to clouds and between... Sample PDF
The Financial Clouds Review
Chapter 10
Shadi Aljawarneh
Information security is a key challenge in the Cloud because the data will be virtualized across different host machines, hosted on the Web. Cloud... Sample PDF
Cloud Security Engineering: Avoiding Security Threats the Right Way
Chapter 11
Kamal Dahbur, Bassil Mohammad, Ahmad Bisher Tarakji
Cloud Computing (CC) is revolutionizing the methodology by which IT services are being utilized. It is being introduced and marketed with many... Sample PDF
Security Issues in Cloud Computing: A Survey of Risks, Threats and Vulnerabilities
Chapter 12
S. K. Maharana, Praveen B. Mali, Ganesh Prabhakar, Sunil J, Vignesh Kumar
Thermal management of integrated circuit (IC) and system-in-package (SIP) has gained importance as the power density and requirement for IC design... Sample PDF
Cloud Computing Applied for Numerical Study of Thermal Characteristics of SIP
Chapter 13
Kamal Dahbur, Bassil Mohammad
The term computer anti-forensics (CAF) generally refers to a set of tactical and technical measures intended to circumvent the efforts and... Sample PDF
Toward Understanding the Challenges and Countermeasures in Computer Anti-Forensics
Chapter 14
R. Jeyarani, N. Nagaveni, Satish Kumar Sadasivam, Vasanth Ram Rajarathinam
Cloud Computing provides on-demand access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources. The major issue lies in managing extremely large... Sample PDF
Power Aware Meta Scheduler for Adaptive VM Provisioning in IaaS Cloud
Chapter 15
Promise Mvelase, Nomusa Dlodlo, Quentin Williams, Matthew O. Adigun
Small, Medium, and Micro enterprises (SMMEs) usually do not have adequate funds to acquire ICT infrastructure and often use cloud computing. In this... Sample PDF
Custom-Made Cloud Enterprise Architecture for Small Medium and Micro Enterprises
Chapter 16
P. Sasikala
Opportunities for improving IT efficiency and performance through centralization of resources have increased dramatically in the past few years with... Sample PDF
Architectural Strategies for Green Cloud Computing: Environments, Infrastructure and Resources
Chapter 17
Jeffrey Chang
Cloud computing is hailed as the next-revolution of computing services. Although there is no precise definition, cloud computing refers to a... Sample PDF
A Framework for Analysing the Impact of Cloud Computing on Local Government in the UK
Chapter 18
Sanjay P. Ahuja, Alan C. Rolli
Cloud computing as a computational model has gathered tremendous traction. It is not completely clear what this term represents though it generally... Sample PDF
Survey of the State-of-the-Art of Cloud Computing
Chapter 19
P. Sasikala
With the popularization and improvement of social and industrial IT development, information appears to explosively increase, and people put much... Sample PDF
Cloud Computing Towards Technological Convergence
Chapter 20
Ghalem Belalem, Said Limam
Cloud computing refers to both the applications delivered as services over the Internet and the hardware and systems software in the datacenters... Sample PDF
Fault Tolerant Architecture to Cloud Computing Using Adaptive Checkpoint