Nowadays, our living environments already provide ubiquitous network connectivity and are populated by an increasing number of artefacts (objects enhanced with sensing, computation, and networking abilities). In addition, people are increasingly using mobile devices as intermediaries between themselves and the artefacts. In order to create, manage, communicate with, and reason about ubiquitous computing environments that involve hundreds of interacting artefacts and cooperating mobile devices, we propose to embed, in these entities, social memory, enhanced context memory, and shared experiences. In this context, we describe an engineering approach and a framework to deal with emergent ecologies of locally interacting artefacts that provide services not existing initially in the individuals, and exhibiting them in a consistent and fault-tolerant way. Because they are emergent, their structure or availability are not predefined or known before hand; we draw from swarm intelligence methods to describe such ecologies.
Key Terms in this Chapter
Ambient Intelligence: A set of [emergent] properties of an environment that we are in the process of creating; it is more an imagined concept than a set of specified requirements (IST Advisor Group, “Ambient intelligence: From vision to reality.” Retrieved on September 16, 2006, from http://cordis.europa.eu/ist/istag-reports.htm). In particular, AmI puts the emphasis on user friendliness, efficient and distributed services support, user empowerment, and support for human interactions. This vision assumes a shift away from PCs to a variety of devices that are unobtrusively embedded in our environment, and that are accessed via intelligent interfaces (Retrieved on September 16, 2006, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ambient_intelligence).
Social Intelligence: “The ability to understand and manage men and women, boys and girls—to act wisely in human relations.” (Thorndike, 1920). According to a broader definition, social intelligence is “… a person’s ability to get along with people in general, social technique or ease in society, knowledge of social matters, susceptibility to stimuli from other members of a group, as well as insight into the temporary moods of underlying personality traits of strangers” (Vernon, 1933).
Ambient Sphere: Ecology of artificial entities coexisting unobtrusively with humans and performing collaborative tasks through a continuous evolvable process concerning both their physical and social cognitive growth.
Swarm Intelligence: “… an alternative way of designing intelligent systems, in which autonomy, emergence and distributed functioning replace control, preprogramming, and centralisation” (Bonabeau et al., 1999).
Ubiquitous Computing: “…the method of enhancing computer use by making many computers available throughout the physical environment, but making them effectively invisible to the user” (Weiser, 1993).
Plug-Synapse Model: A conceptual abstraction that enables uniform access to eGadget services/capabilities/properties and allows users to compose applications that realize a collective behaviour in a high-level programming manner (Mavrommati & Kameas, 2004)
Ambient System: A distributed platform that supports the instantiation of ambient spheres.
Hyper Objects (eGadgets): Ordinary objects that are commonly used for everyday, even mundane tasks (objects such as tables, chairs, cups, shelves, lights, carpets, etc..), and which in the future, can be enhanced with communication, processing, and sometimes sensing abilities (Mavrommati & Kameas, 2003).
Basic Building Block: Modelling abstraction representing self-sustained entities that are members of an AmI sphere.
Basic Behaviours: Predefined functions of the artefacts that are either enabled as reactions to external events or are continuously pursued to be fulfilled.
Complete Chapter List
Anxo Cereijo Roibás, Stephen Johnson
Hanna Stelmaszewska, Bob Fields, Ann Blandford
Hyowon Lee, Cathal Gurrin, Gareth J.F. Jones, Alan F. Smeaton
Amy K. Karlson, Benjamin B. Bederson, Jose L. Contreras-Vidal
Martina Ziefle, Susanne Bay
Susanne Bay, Martina Ziefle
Chris Barber, James Knight
Anind K. Dey, Jonna Häkkilä
Bent Schmidt-Nielsen, Bret Harsham, Bhiksha Raj, Clifton Forlines
Nikolaos Tselios, Ioanna Papadimitriou, Dimitrios Raptis, Nikoletta Yiannoutsou, Vassilis Komis, Nikolaos Avouris
Siu Cheung Kong
Hyungsung Park, Young Kyun Baek, David Gibson
Nikola Mitrovic, Eduardo Mena, Jose Alberto Royo
Michael J. O’Grady, Gregory M.P. O’Hare
Yang Li, Scott Klemmer, James A. Landay
Emmanuel Dubois, Wafaa Abou Moussa, Cédric Bach, Nelly de Bonnefoy
Ioannis D. Zaharakis, Achilles D. Kameas
Rafael Ballagas, Michael Rohs, Jennifer G. Sheridan, Jan Borchers
Mark David Dunlop, Michelle Montgomery Masters
Min Lin, Andrew Sears, Steven Herbst, Yanfang Liu
Louise E. Moser, P.M. Melliar-Smith
Dong Yu, Li Deng
Parisa Eslambolchilar, Andrew Crossan, Roderick Murray-Smith, Sara Dalzel-Job, Frank Pollick
Panu Korpipää, Jukka Linjama, Juha Kela, Tapani Rantakokko
Enrico Costanza, Samuel A. Inverso, Rebecca Allen, Pattie Maes
Tolga Capin, Antonio Haro
Andrea Sanna, Fabrizio Lamberti
Rock Leung, Joanna Lumsden
Mark Matthews, Gavin Doherty, David Coyle, John Sharry
Francesco Bellotti, Riccardo Berta, Alessandro De Gloria, Massimiliano Margarone
Shigueo Nomura, Takayuki Shiose, Hiroshi Kawakami, Osamu Katai, Keiji Yamanaka
Florence Gaunet, Xavier Briffault
Julio Abascal, Borja Bonail, Daniel Cagigas, Nestor Garay, Luis Gardeazabal
Regina Bernhaupt, Kristijan Mihalic, Marianna Obrist
Jan Willem Streefkerk, Myra P. van Esch-Bussemakers, Mark A. Neerincx, Rosemarijn Looije
Enrico Bertini, Tiziana Catarci, Alan Dix, Silvia Gabrielli, Stephen Kimani, Giuseppe Santucci
Thomas Alexander, Christopher Schlick, Alexander Sievert, Dieter Leyk
Maria de Fátima Queiroz Vieira Turnell, José Eustáquio Rangel de Queiroz, Danilo de Sousa Ferreira
Jaakko T. Lehikoinen
Dong-Han Ham, Jeongyun Heo, Peter Fossick, William Wong, Sanghyun Park, Chiwon Song, Mike Bradley
Kaikkonen, Kaikkonen, Anne, Anne, Aki Kekäläinen, Mikael Cankar, Titti Kallio
Murray Crease, Robert Longworth
Andrew Crossan, Roderick Murray-Smith, Stephen Brewster, Bojan Musizza
Murray Crease, Joanna Lumsden
Rune T. Høegh, Jesper Kjeldskov, Mikael B. Skov, Jan Stage
Adrian Stoica, Georgios Fiotakis, Dimitrios Raptis, Ioanna Papadimitriou, Vassilis Komis, Nikolaos Avouris
Kater Oakley, Gitte Lindgaard, Peter Kroeger, John Miller, Earl Bryenton, Paul Hébert
Shwetak N. Patel, Khai N. Truong, Gillian R. Hayes, Giovanni Iachello, Julie A. Kientz, Gregory D. Abowd
Saturnino Luz, Masood Masoodian
Jason T. Black, Lois Wright Hawkes
Tiong T. Goh, Kinshuk, Nian-Shing Chen