Engineering Information Into Open Documents

Engineering Information Into Open Documents

Chia-Chu Chiang (University of Arkansas at Little Rock, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-246-6.ch002
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Abstract

Documents are perfectly suited for information exchange via the Internet. In order to insure that there are no misunderstandings, information embedded in a document needs to be precise and unambiguous. Having a (de facto) standard data model and conceptual information model insures that the involved parties will agree on what the information means. XML (eXtensible Markup Language) has become the de facto standard format for representing information in documents for document exchange. Many techniques have been proposed to create XML documents, including the validation and transformation of XML documents. However, very little is discussed when it comes to extracting information from non- XML documents and engineering the information into XML documents. The extraction process can be a highly labor intensive task if it is done manually. The use of automated tools would make the process more efficient. In this chapter, the author will briefly survey document engineering techniques for XML documents. Then, the author will present two techniques to extract data from Windows documents into XML documents. These two techniques have been successfully applied in two industrial projects. He believes that techniques that automate the extraction of data from non-XML documents into XML formats will definitely enhance the use of XML documents.
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Background

Glushko and McGrath (2005) define documents in a general notion as follows,

“Document in a technology-neutral way as a purposeful and self-contained collection of information.”

Organizations should think of documents in an abstract and technology-neutral way. Documents should be flexibly exchanged via the Internet without concern as to how the documents are to be sent via the Internet. Documents should also be considered as a self-contained package of related information that can effectively organize business functions for use by other organizations. In addition, the interfaces between organizations used to process documents should be kept as minimal and simple as possible. More importantly, software tools should be able to enable quick and efficient means for documentation. One way to create such documents on the Internet is through the use of XML that is a universal, text-based, and self-describing data format. Almost every organization has computers and software tools to process XML.

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Table of Contents
Chapter 1
Teemu Saarelainen
The amount of information surrounding us is ever increasing. Usable information is our most valuable asset both in our professional and personal... Sample PDF
Open Formats, Open Information and Future Trends in Software Engineering
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Chapter 2
Chia-Chu Chiang
Documents are perfectly suited for information exchange via the Internet. In order to insure that there are no misunderstandings, information... Sample PDF
Engineering Information Into Open Documents
$37.50
Chapter 3
Dwayne Rosenburgh
This chapter presents a look at the decision-making methods used by real-life, collegial, high-achieving, technical teams and organizations. One may... Sample PDF
Decision-making as a Facilitator of High-achievement in Non-hierarchical Technical Environments
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Chapter 4
Khaled Ahmed Nagaty
The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the relationship between three entities: hierarchical organization, information management and human... Sample PDF
Hierarchical Organization as a Facilitator of Information Management in Human Collaboration
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Chapter 5
Christine B. Glaser, Amy Tan, Ahmet M. Kondoz
Managing information collaboratively in an open and unbounded environment without an information management application influenced and challenged... Sample PDF
An Intelligent Information Management Tool for Complex Distributed Human Collaboration
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Chapter 6
Lobna Hsairi, Khaled Ghédira, Adel M. Alim, Abdellatif BenAbdelhafid
In the age of information proliferation, openness, open information management, interconnectivity, collaboration and communication advances... Sample PDF
R2-IBN: Argumentation Based Negotiation Framework for MAIS-E2 model
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Chapter 7
Pauli Brattico, Mikko Maatta
Automatic natural language processing captures a lion’s share of the attention in open information management. In one way or another, many... Sample PDF
Natural Language Parsing: New Perspectives from Contemporary Biolinguistics
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Chapter 8
Sune Lehmann
A network structure of nodes and links is an informative way to study information systems. The network representation is valuable because it encodes... Sample PDF
Structures in Complex Bipartite Networks
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Chapter 9
Juha Kesseli, Andre S. Ribeiro, Matti Nykter
In this chapter the authors study the propagation and processing of information in dynamical systems. Various information management systems can be... Sample PDF
Measuring Information Propagation and Processing in Biological Systems
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Chapter 10
Yacine Benahmed, Sid-Ahmed Selouani, Habib Hamam
In the context of the prodigious growth of network-based information services, messaging and edutainment, we introduce new tools that enable... Sample PDF
Natural Human-System Interaction Using Intelligent Conversational Agents
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Chapter 11
Marko Helén, Tommi Lahti, Anssi Klapuri
The purpose of this chapter is to introduce tools for automatic audio management. The authors present applications which are already available for... Sample PDF
Tools for Automatic Audio Management
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Chapter 12
Susmit Bagchi
Due to the advancement of hardware technologies and mobile communication systems, the mobile devices are transforming into multimedia devices... Sample PDF
PUM: Personalized Ubiquitous Multimedia
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Chapter 13
Edgar Jembere, Matthew O. Adigun, Sibusiso S. Xulu
Human Computer Interaction (HCI) challenges in highly dynamic computing environments can be solved by tailoring the access and use of services to... Sample PDF
Personalisation in Highly Dynamic Grid Services Environments
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Chapter 14
Josef Makolm, Silke Weiss, Doris Ipsmiller
Efficient and effective knowledge management plays an increasingly important role in knowledge intensive organizations. The research project... Sample PDF
DYONIPOS: Proactive Support of Knowledge Workers
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Chapter 15
Juhana Kokkonen
In this chapter the open-source based collaboration model of Finnish Wikipedia is examined from the perspective of user culture, which is the... Sample PDF
User Culture, User-System Relation and Trust – The Case of Finnish Wikipedia
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Chapter 16
Cristina Melchiors, Lisandro Zambenedetti Granville, Liane Margarida Rockenbach Tarouco
The use of information management tools in open and unbounded operational environments demands an efficient and robust communication infrastructure... Sample PDF
P2P-Based Management of Collaboration Communication Infrastructures
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Chapter 17
John Tsiligaridis
The problem of server performance in a contemporary, rapidly developed and multi-discipline environment is examined. Multiple requests in a very... Sample PDF
A Framework for Semi-Autonomous Servers in the Wireless Network Environment
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Chapter 18
Rakesh Biswas, Kevin Smith, Carmel M. Martin, Joachim P. Sturmberg, Ankur Joshi
This chapter discusses the role of open health information management in the the development of a novel, adaptable mixed-platform for supporting... Sample PDF
Open Information Management in User-driven Health Care
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Chapter 19
Michael Losavio, Adel Elmaghraby, Deborah Keeling
The global interconnected information space offers unprecedented ways of accessing and analyzing information. New infringements of the rights of... Sample PDF
Information Management: Jurisdictional, Legal and Ethical Factors
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