Enhancing Knowledge Management in a Multi-Center Clinical Trial by a Web-Based Knowledge Medium

Enhancing Knowledge Management in a Multi-Center Clinical Trial by a Web-Based Knowledge Medium

Rolf Grütter (University of St. Gallen, Switzerland), Katerina Stanoevska-Slabeva (University of St. Gallan, Switzerland) and Walter Fierz (Institure for Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Switzerland)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-878289-65-0.ch009
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Abstract

The healthcare industry is essentially knowledge based. The quality and efficiency of work performed in healthcare institutions depends on their ability to both manage internally created knowledge about patients, e.g., healing practices, and available expertise as well as to enrich and integrate it with relevant external knowledge created worldwide by related institutions (pharmacy research teams, international health organizations, etc.). Efficient management of knowledge in healthcare requires, therefore, concepts and solutions for management, cooperation, and sharing of knowledge within and between institutions (Greiner & Rose, 1997). Despite this fact, until now, knowledge management and processing techniques are mainly used in the form of isolated (e.g., expert) systems for very specific domains. The basic processes of knowledge generation and exchange across domains and locations are not supported by integrated information systems. Under the growing pressure on quality assurance and cost reduction, innovative concepts and technologies to support the management of knowledge are increasingly gaining attention from hospital workers, physicians, pharmacists, health insurance companies, and patients. Knowledge management is a systematic approach to improve the way organizations, groups, and individuals handle their knowledge in all forms, in order to improve their effectiveness, innovation and quality. This implies effective creation, capturing, sharing, and managing of knowledge. Several approaches and guidelines for organizing knowledge management (Probst, Steffen and Kai, 1997; Davenport 1998) and technologies, such as organizational memory (Stein and Zwass, 1994; Conklin, 1996) or document-management systems, have been developed in order to guide knowledge management projects and enable knowledge management. The basic feature of these approaches is the focus on specific aspects of knowledge management. They do not provide a holistic approach dealing with all critical aspects of knowledge management (Schmid & Stanoevska, 1998) starting from developing a vision and finishing with a concept for an appropriate technical platform. The complexity of the knowledge management problem in healthcare requires a holistic approach, which integrates conceptual and technical aspects of knowledge management, supports modular and evolutionary development, and considers existing (legacy) internal and external knowledge sources. In this chapter we will introduce the concept of the knowledge medium as defined by Schmid (1999), which goes beyond existing solutions for knowledge management, and will demonstrate its applicability to the healthcare domain through the example of a multi-center clinical trial. The project is a joint effort by the Swiss HIV Cohort Study, the Patient-Oriented Medical Information System Initiative of Walter Fierz, MD, and the Institute for Media and Communications Management, University of St Gallen, Switzerland. In the next section, the Swiss HIV Cohort Study and its requirements regarding data processing and knowledge management will be described. Then, the concept of the knowledge medium as a framework for the design of knowledge media in multi-center clinical trials is introduced. We relate the concept to the application context and describe the implementation of a knowledge medium in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Finally, the achieved results are discussed and conclusions with an outlook of further plans are given.

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Table of Contents
Preface
Lauren B. Eder
Chapter 1
David W. Forslund, David G. Kilman
With the arrival of the “World Wide Web,” we have witnessed a transition toward a truly global perspective with respect to electronic health... Sample PDF
The Impact of the Global, Extensible Electronic Health Record
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Chapter 2
Ray Hackney, Neil McBride
The UK Information Management Strategy (NHS, 1998) for the period to 2005 envisages the implementation of a Nationwide private network which will... Sample PDF
UK Primary Healthcare Groups: Stakeholders, Technology and Benefits
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Chapter 3
Grace Johnson, Anand Kumar, Arkalgud Ramaprasad, Madhusudhan Reddy
The past few years have seen Web-based technology diffusing into a wide cross-section of industries, cutting across various barriers, and changing... Sample PDF
Technology-Based Marketing in the Healthcare Industry: Implications for Relationships Between Players in the Industry
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Chapter 4
Stefan Kirn, Christian Heine
In most countries of the world, public health is an important indicator for the prosperity of a society. However, due to increasing deficits in... Sample PDF
Teleradiology: IT-Based Co-operation and Networking in Public Health
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Chapter 5
Jeanine W. Turner
Telemedicine is redefining the boundaries of the doctor and patient encounter. No longer do the doctor and patient need to be in the same room. No... Sample PDF
Telemedicine: Generating the Virtual Office Visit
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Chapter 6
Hans Lehmann, Terence Wee
The rationale for using a single case study approach is set out and put into context of current case research literature and thinking. The validity... Sample PDF
Automating Patients Admission: Proactive Leadership on a Shoestring
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Chapter 7
Mikko Korpela, Juha Mykkänen, Mika Räsänen, Hellevi Ruonamaa, Marko Sormunen
A migration strategy can turn legacy systems into a valuable heritage. In Finland, most hospital information systems are based on the U.S.... Sample PDF
Transforming Legacy Systems into a Valuable Heritage: The Case of the FixIT Migration Tools in Finland
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Chapter 8
Rajiv Kohli, David Ziege
Changes in the healthcare business resulting from capitation and declining reimbursement have led to cost-cutting measures in all areas of... Sample PDF
Disseminating Cost Information Through a Corporate Intranet: A Case Study and Lessons Learned
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Chapter 9
Rolf Grütter, Katerina Stanoevska-Slabeva, Walter Fierz
The healthcare industry is essentially knowledge based. The quality and efficiency of work performed in healthcare institutions depends on their... Sample PDF
Enhancing Knowledge Management in a Multi-Center Clinical Trial by a Web-Based Knowledge Medium
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Chapter 10
Guisseppi A. Gorgionne, Aryya Gangopadhyah, Monica Adya
Geographical variations in cancer rates have been observed for decades. Described spatial patterns and trends have provided clues for generating... Sample PDF
A Decision Technology System to Advance the Diagnosis and Treatment of Breast Cancer
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Chapter 11
James R. Warren, Joseph T. Noone
A variety of forces are encouraging change in the healthcare systems of developed countries. Chief among these is perception of high (and rising)... Sample PDF
Web-Enabled Integration of Patient Data and Clinical Guidelines for Coordinated Care
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Chapter 12
James G. Anderson, Linda L Casebeer, Robert E. Kristofco, Angela S. Carillo
The rapid expansion of scientific knowledge brings increased physician uncertainty in clinical decisionmaking. Clinical practice guidelines have... Sample PDF
Using Web-Enabled Technology to Promote the Adoption of Practice Guidelines
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Chapter 13
Jerry B. Weinberg, Steven P. Klein, Robert Klepper, Bernard Waxman, Xudong Yu, Daniel K. Anderson
Effective physicians must listen to their patient’s concerns, take accurate and complete medical histories, and earn patient trust and confidence.... Sample PDF
Patient-Doctor Interconnectivity: Improving Health Care Management and Patient Compliance with Web Technology
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Chapter 14
Riitta Söderlund, Pekka Reijonen, Malin Brännback
In most Western countries, healthcare systems are in economic crisis. It is not possible to increase available resources, but at the same time... Sample PDF
A Web-Based Solution for Enhancing Diabetic Well-Being
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Chapter 15
The Web-Enabled Patient  (pages 222-238)
Michele Lemaire
The past decade has witnessed major changes in the concepts of health and disease and in the respective role and responsibility of doctors and... Sample PDF
The Web-Enabled Patient
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Chapter 16
Catherine E. Bridge, Simeon J. Simoff
Identifying and removing architectural barriers to access for people with disabilities follows community recognition that people with disabilities... Sample PDF
Disability Access to the Built Environment: Web-Based On-Line Evaluation and Informatio Dissemination
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About the Authors