Ensemble of SVM Classifiers for Spam Filtering

Ensemble of SVM Classifiers for Spam Filtering

Ángela Blanco (Universidad Pontificia de Salamanca, Spain) and Manuel Martín-Merino (Universidad Pontificia de Salamanca, Spain)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 6
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-849-9.ch086
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Unsolicited commercial email also known as Spam is becoming a serious problem for Internet users and providers (Fawcett, 2003). Several researchers have applied machine learning techniques in order to improve the detection of spam messages. Naive Bayes models are the most popular (Androutsopoulos, 2000) but other authors have applied Support Vector Machines (SVM) (Drucker, 1999), boosting and decision trees (Carreras, 2001) with remarkable results. SVM has revealed particularly attractive in this application because it is robust against noise and is able to handle a large number of features (Vapnik, 1998). Errors in anti-spam email filtering are strongly asymmetric. Thus, false positive errors or valid messages that are blocked, are prohibitively expensive. Several authors have proposed new versions of the original SVM algorithm that help to reduce the false positive errors (Kolz, 2001, Valentini, 2004 & Kittler, 1998). In particular, it has been suggested that combining non-optimal classifiers can help to reduce particularly the variance of the predictor (Valentini, 2004 & Kittler, 1998) and consequently the misclassification errors. In order to achieve this goal, different versions of the classifier are usually built by sampling the patterns or the features (Breiman, 1996). However, in our application it is expected that the aggregation of strong classifiers will help to reduce more the false positive errors (Provost, 2001 & Hershop, 2005). In this paper, we address the problem of reducing the false positive errors by combining classifiers based on multiple dissimilarities. To this aim, a diversity of classifiers is built considering dissimilarities that reflect different features of the data. The dissimilarities are first embedded into an Euclidean space where a SVM is adjusted for each measure. Next, the classifiers are aggregated using a voting strategy (Kittler, 1998). The method proposed has been applied to the Spam UCI machine learning database (Hastie, 2001) with remarkable results.
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The Problem Of Dissimilarities Revisited

An important step in the design of a classifier is the choice of the proper dissimilarity that reflects the proximities among the objects. However, the choice of a good dissimilarity for the problem at hand is not an easy task. Each measure reflects different features of the dataset and no dissimilarity outperforms the others in a wide range of problems. In this section, we comment shortly the main differences among several dissimilarities that can be applied to model the proximities among emails. For a deeper description and definitions see for instance (Cox, 2001).

Key Terms in this Chapter

UCE: Unsolicited Commercial Email, also known as Spam

K-NN: K-Nearest Neighbor algorithm for classication purposes.

Dissimilarity: It is a measure of proximity that does not obey the triangle inequality.

SVD: Singular Value Decomposition. Linear algebra operation that is used by many optimization algorithms.

Kernel: Non-linear transformation to a high dimensional feature space.

Bootstrap: Resampling technique based on several random samples drawn with replacement.

SVM: Support Vector Machines classifier.

MDS: Multidimensional Scaling Algorithm applied for the visualization of high dimensional data.

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Table of Contents
Chapter 1
Jun Jiang, Horace H.S. Ip
Jiang, Jun; IP Horace H. S. With the increasing demand of multimedia information retrieval, such as image and video retrieval from the Web, there is... Sample PDF
Active Learning with SVM
Chapter 2
M. L. Gavrilova
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Adaptive Algorithms for Intelligent Geometric Computing
Chapter 3
Zbigniew Michalewicz
Since the computer age dawned on mankind, one of the most important areas in information technology has been that of “decision support.” Today, this... Sample PDF
Adaptive Business Intelligence
Chapter 4
Radu Mutihac
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) (McCulloch & Pitts, 1943) (Haykin, 1999) were developed as models of their biological counterparts aiming to... Sample PDF
Adaptive Neural Algorithms for PCA and ICA
Chapter 5
Larbi Esmahi, Kristian Williamson, Elarbi Badidi
Fuzzy logic became the core of a different approach to computing. Whereas traditional approaches to computing were precise, or hard edged, fuzzy... Sample PDF
Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Systems
Chapter 6
João José Neto
Before the advent of software engineering, the lack of memory space in computers and the absence of established programming methodologies led early... Sample PDF
Adaptive Technology and Its Applications
Chapter 7
J. Álvaro Fernández
Since its introduction to the research community in 1988, the Cellular Neural Network (CNN) (Chua & Yang, 1988) paradigm has become a fruitful soil... Sample PDF
Advanced Cellular Neural Networks Image Processing
Chapter 8
Zaiyong Tang, Xiaoyu Huang, Kallol Bagchi
An intelligent system is a system that has, similar to a living organism, a coherent set of components and subsystems working together to engage in... Sample PDF
Agent-Based Intelligent System Modeling
Chapter 9
Lester Ingber
A briefing (Allen, 2004) demonstrates the breadth and depth complexity required to address real diplomatic, information, military, economic (DIME)... Sample PDF
AI and Ideas by Statistical Mechanics
Chapter 10
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Algorithms for Association Rule Mining
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Ambient Intelligence  (pages 85-91)
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Ambient Intelligence
Chapter 14
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The trend in the direction of hardware cost reduction and miniaturization allows including computing devices in several objects and environments... Sample PDF
Ambient Intelligence Environments
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Analytics for Noisy Unstructured Text Data II
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ANN Application in the Field of Structural Concrete
Chapter 19
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Chapter 21
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Artificial Intelligence and Education
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Chapter 30
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Automatic Classification of Impact-Echo Spectra I
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Automatic Classification of Impact-Echo Spectra II
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Bio-Inspired Algorithms in Bioinformatics II
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Chapter 44
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Chapter 49
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Chapter 50
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Chapter 52
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Chapter 53
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Chapter 54
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Complex Systems Modeling by Cellular Automata
Chapter 55
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The usual real-valued artificial neural networks have been applied to various fields such as telecommunications, robotics, bioinformatics, image... Sample PDF
Complex-Valued Neural Networks
Chapter 56
Oscar Déniz Suárez, Gloria Bueno García
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Component Analysis in Artificial Vision
Chapter 57
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Computational Methods in Biomedical Imaging
Chapter 58
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Chapter 59
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Chapter 60
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Conditional Hazard Estimating Neural Networks
Chapter 61
Configuration  (pages 396-403)
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Chapter 62
Constraint Processing  (pages 404-409)
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Constraint Processing
Chapter 63
Wei-Chiang Samuelson Hong
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Chapter 64
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Chapter 65
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Chapter 66
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Chapter 67
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Decision Tree Applications for Data Modelling
Chapter 68
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The Dempster-Shafer Theory
Chapter 69
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Chapter 70
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Chapter 72
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Chapter 73
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Different Approaches for Cooperation with Metaheuristics
Chapter 74
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Chapter 75
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Discovering Mappings Between Ontologies
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Disk-Based Search
Chapter 77
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Chapter 78
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Chapter 82
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Chapter 86
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Ensemble of SVM Classifiers for Spam Filtering
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Chapter 98
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Georg Peters
It is well accepted that in many real life situations information is not certain and precise but rather uncertain or imprecise. To describe... Sample PDF
Granular Computing
Chapter 116
Soledad Delgado, Consuelo Gonzalo, Estíbaliz Martínez, Águeda Arquero
Currently, there exist many research areas that produce large multivariable datasets that are difficult to visualize in order to extract useful... Sample PDF
Growing Self-Organizing Maps for Data Analysis
Chapter 117
Lluís Formiga, Francesc Alías
Unit Selection Text-to-Speech Synthesis (US-TTS) systems produce synthetic speech based on the retrieval of previous recorded speech units from a... Sample PDF
GTM User Modeling for aIGA Weight Tuning in TTS Synthesis
Chapter 118
Roy Gelbard, Avichai Meged
Representing and consequently processing fuzzy data in standard and binary databases is problematic. The problem is further amplified in binary... Sample PDF
Handling Fuzzy Similarity for Data Classification
Chapter 119
Zong Woo Geem
The dam is the wall that holds the water in, and the operation of multiple dams is complicated decisionmaking process as an optimization problem... Sample PDF
Harmony Search for Multiple Dam Scheduling
Chapter 120
Marley Vellasco, Marco Pacheco, Karla Figueiredo, Flavio Souza
Neuro-fuzzy [Jang,1997][Abraham,2005] are hybrid systems that combine the learning capacity of neural nets [Haykin,1999] with the linguistic... Sample PDF
Hierarchical Neuro-Fuzzy Systems Part I
Chapter 121
Marley Vellasco, Marco Pacheco, Karla Figueiredo, Flavio Souza
This paper describes a new class of neuro-fuzzy models, called Reinforcement Learning Hierarchical Neuro- Fuzzy Systems (RL-HNF). These models... Sample PDF
Hierarchical Neuro-Fuzzy Systems Part II
Chapter 122
Carlos Diuk, Michael Littman
Reinforcement learning (RL) deals with the problem of an agent that has to learn how to behave to maximize its utility by its interactions with an... Sample PDF
Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning
Chapter 123
Nouma Izeboudjen, Ahcene Farah, Hamid Bessalah, Ahmed Bouridene, Nassim Chikhi
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are systems which are derived from the field of neuroscience and are characterized by intensive arithmetic... Sample PDF
High Level Design Approach for FPGA Implementation of ANNs
Chapter 124
Stefano Cagnoni, Monica Mordonini, Luca Mussi, Giovanni Adorni
Biological vision processes are usually characterized by the following different phases: • Awareness: natural or artificial agents operating in... Sample PDF
HOPS: A Hybrid Dual Camera Vision System
Chapter 125
Stefano Cagnoni, Monica Mordonini, Luca Mussi, Giovanni Adorni
Many of the known visual systems in nature are characterized by a wide field of view allowing animals to keep the whole surrounding environment... Sample PDF
Hybrid Dual Camera Vision Systems
Chapter 126
Ana Maria Madureira
The complexity of current computer systems has led the software engineering, distributed systems and management communities to look for inspiration... Sample PDF
Hybrid Meta-Heuristics Based System for Dynamic Scheduling
Chapter 127
Carlos Alberto Reyes-García, Ramon Zatarain, Lucia Barron, Orion Fausto Reyes-Galaviz
Crying in babies is a primary communication function, governed directly by the brain; any alteration on the normal functioning of the babies’ body... Sample PDF
A Hybrid System for Automatic Infant Cry Recognition I
Chapter 128
Carlos Alberto Reyes-García, Sandra E. Barajas, Esteban Tlelo-Cuautle, Orion Fausto Reyes-Galaviz
Automatic Infant Cry Recognition (AICR) process is basically a problem of pattern processing, very similar to the Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR)... Sample PDF
A Hybrid System for Automatic Infant Cry Recognition II
Chapter 129
Antonio Seoane, Alberto Jaspe
Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) have been evolving very fast, turning into high performance programmable processors. Though GPUs have been designed... Sample PDF
IA Algorithm Acceleration Using GPUs
Chapter 130
Liwei Fan, Kim Leng Poh
A Bayesian Network (BN) takes a relationship between graphs and probability distributions. In the past, BN was mainly used for knowledge... Sample PDF
Improving the Naïve Bayes Classifier
Chapter 131
Lior Rokach
In this chapter we discuss how fuzzy logic extends the envelop of the main data mining tasks: clustering, classification, regression and association... Sample PDF
Incorporating Fuzzy Logic in Data Mining Tasks
Chapter 132
Independent Subspaces  (pages 892-901)
Lei Xu
Several unsupervised learning topics have been extensively studied with wide applications for decades in the literatures of statistics, signal... Sample PDF
Independent Subspaces
Chapter 133
Deniz Erdogmus, Jose C. Principe
Learning systems depend on three interrelated components: topologies, cost/performance functions, and learning algorithms. Topologies provide the... Sample PDF
Information Theoretic Learning
Chapter 134
O. Valenzuela, I. Rojas, F. Rojas, A. Guillen, L. J. Herrera, F. J. Rojas, M. Cepero
This chapter is focused on the analysis and classification of arrhythmias. An arrhythmia is any cardiac pace that is not the typical sinusoidal one... Sample PDF
Intelligent Classifier for Atrial Fibrillation (ECG)
Chapter 135
G. Nicolás Marichal, Evelio J. González
The concept of agent has been successfully used in a wide range of applications such as Robotics, e-commerce, agent-assisted user training, military... Sample PDF
Intelligent MAS in System Engineering and Robotics
Chapter 136
Safiye Turgay, Fahrettin Yaman
The query answering system realizes the selection of the data, preparation, pattern discovering, and pattern development processes in an agent-based... Sample PDF
Intelligent Query Answering Mechanism in Multi Agent Systems
Chapter 137
Raúl Vicen Bueno, Manuel Rosa Zurera, María Pilar Jarabo Amores, Roberto Gil Pita, David de la Mata Moya
The Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are based on the behaviour of the brain. So, they can be considered as intelligent systems. In this way, the... Sample PDF
Intelligent Radar Detectors
Chapter 138
Xin Luo, Somasheker Akkaladevi
Equipped with sophisticated information technology infrastructures, the information world is becoming more expansive and widely interconnected.... Sample PDF
Intelligent Software Agents Analysis in E-Commerce I
Chapter 139
Xin Luo, Somasheker Akkaladevi
Cowan et al. (2002) argued that the human cognitive ability to search for information and to evaluate their usefulness is extremely limited in... Sample PDF
Intelligent Software Agents Analysis in E-Commerce II
Chapter 140
Mario Jankovic-Romano, Milan Stankovic, Uroš Krcadinac
Most people are familiar with the concept of agents in real life. There are stock-market agents, sports agents, real-estate agents, etc. Agents are... Sample PDF
Intelligent Software Agents with Applications in Focus
Chapter 141
Raúl Vicen Bueno, Elena Torijano Gordo, Antonio García González, Manuel Rosa Zurera, Roberto Gil Pita
The Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are based on the behavior of the brain. So, they can be considered as intelligent systems. In this way, the... Sample PDF
Intelligent Traffic Sign Classifiers
Chapter 142
Qiyang Chen, John Wang
Today’s e-commerce environment requires that interactive systems exhibit abilities such as autonomy, adaptive and collaborative behavior, and... Sample PDF
Interactive Systems and Sources of Uncertainties
Chapter 143
Ioannis K. Vlachos, George D. Sergiadis
Since its genesis, fuzzy sets (FSs) theory (Zadeh, 1965) provided a flexible framework for handling the indeterminacy characterizing real-world... Sample PDF
Intuitionistic Fuzzy Image Processing
Chapter 144
Javier Andrade, Santiago Rodríguez, María Seoane, Sonia Suárez
The success of the organisations is increasingly dependant on the knowledge they have, to the detriment of other traditionally decisive factors as... Sample PDF
Knowledge Management Systems Procedural Development
Chapter 145
Juan Ares, Rafael García, María Seoane, Sonia Suárez
The Knowledge Management (KM) is a recent discipline that was born under the idea of explicitly managing the whole existing knowledge of a given... Sample PDF
Knowledge Management Tools and Their Desirable Characteristics
Chapter 146
Knowledge-Based Systems  (pages 989-995)
Adrian A. Hopgood
The tools of artificial intelligence (AI) can be divided into two broad types: knowledge-based systems (KBSs) and computational intelligence (CI).... Sample PDF
Knowledge-Based Systems
Chapter 147
Marie-Thérèse Boyer-Xambeu, Ghislain Deleplace, Patrice Gaubert, Lucien Gillard
In the analysis of a temporal process, Kohonen maps may be used together with time-series (TS) algorithms. Previous research aimed at combining... Sample PDF
Kohonen Maps and TS Algorithms
Chapter 148
Lluís A. Belanche Muñoz
The view of artificial neural networks as adaptive systems has lead to the development of ad-hoc generic procedures known as learning rules. The... Sample PDF
Learning in Feed-Forward Artificial Neural Networks I
Chapter 149
Lluís A. Belanche Muñoz
Supervised Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are information processing systems that adapt their functionality as a result of exposure to... Sample PDF
Learning in Feed-Forward Artificial Neural Networks II
Chapter 150
Alfredo Garro
Game Theory (Von Neumann & Morgenstern, 1944) is a branch of applied mathematics and economics that studies situations (games) where self-interested... Sample PDF
Learning Nash Equilibria in Non-Cooperative Games
Chapter 151
Learning-Based Planning  (pages 1024-1028)
Sergio Jiménez Celorrio, Tomás de la Rosa Turbides
Automated Planning (AP) studies the generation of action sequences for problem solving. A problem in AP is defined by a state-transition function... Sample PDF
Learning-Based Planning
Chapter 152
Patrick Rousset, Jean-Francois Giret
The aim of this paper is to present a typology of career paths in France drawn up with the Kohonen algorithm and its extension to a clustering... Sample PDF
A Longitudinal Analysis of Labour Market Data with SOM
Chapter 153
Qiyang Chen, John Wang
To adapt users’ input and tasks an interactive system must be able to establish a set of assumptions about users’ profiles and task characteristics... Sample PDF
Managing Uncertainties in Interactive Systems
Chapter 154
Francesco di Pierro, Soon-Thiam Khu, Dragan A. Savic
Many-objective evolutionary optimisation is a recent research area that is concerned with the optimisation of problems consisting of a large number... Sample PDF
Many-Objective Evolutionary Optimisation
Chapter 155
Yi Zhao, Wolfgang A. Halang
As a key factor to enable interoperability in the Semantic Web (Berners-Lee, Hendler & Lassila, 2001), ontologies are developed by different... Sample PDF
Mapping Ontologies by Utilising Their Semantic Structure
Chapter 156
Radu Mutihac
Models and algorithms have been designed to mimic information processing and knowledge acquisition of the human brain generically called artificial... Sample PDF
Mathematical Modeling of Artificial Neural Networks
Chapter 157
Juan M. Gómez, Ricardo Colomo, Marcos Ruano, Ángel García
Technological advances in high-throughput techniques and efficient data gathering methods, coupled computational biology efforts, have resulted in a... Sample PDF
Microarray Information and Data Integration Using SAMIDI
Chapter 158
Lee Gim Hee, Marcelo H. Ang Jr.
The development of autonomous mobile robots is continuously gaining importance particularly in the military for surveillance as well as in industry... Sample PDF
Mobile Robots Navigation, Mapping, and Localization Part I
Chapter 159
Lee Gim Hee, Marcelo H. Ang Jr.
In addition to the capability to navigate from a point of origin to a given goal and avoiding all static and dynamic obstacles, a mobile robot must... Sample PDF
Mobile Robots Navigation, Mapping, and Localization Part II
Chapter 160
Nikolay V. Shilov, Natalia Garanina
It becomes evident in recent years a surge of interest to applications of modal logics for specification and validation of complex systems. It holds... Sample PDF
Modal Logics for Reasoning about Multiagent Systems
Chapter 161
Ricardo Téllez, Cecilio Angulo
The concept of modularity is a main concern for the generation of artificially intelligent systems. Modularity is an ubiquitous organization... Sample PDF
Modularity in Artificial Neural Networks
Chapter 162
Jose Crespo
In the last fifty years, approximately, advances in computers and the availability of images in digital form have made it possible to process and to... Sample PDF
Morphological Filtering Principles
Chapter 163
Enrique Mérida-Casermeiro, Domingo López-Rodríguez, Juan M. Ortiz-de-Lazcano-Lobato
Since McCulloch and Pitts’ seminal work (McCulloch & Pitts, 1943), several models of discrete neural networks have been proposed, many of them... Sample PDF
MREM, Discrete Recurrent Network for Optimization
Chapter 164
Ivan N. Silva, Rogerio A. Flauzino
The design of fuzzy inference systems comes along with several decisions taken by the designers since is necessary to determine, in a coherent way... Sample PDF
Multilayer Optimization Approach for Fuzzy Systems
Chapter 165
László Kovács, Tanja Sieber
One of the basic terms in information engineering is data. In our approach, data item is defined as representation of an information atom stored in... Sample PDF
Multi-Layered Semantic Data Models
Chapter 166
P. A. Gutiérrez, C. Hervás, F. J. Martínez-Estudillo, M. Carbonero
Multi-class pattern recognition has a wide range of applications including handwritten digit recognition (Chiang, 1998), speech tagging and... Sample PDF
Multilogistic Regression by Product Units
Chapter 167
Sanjoy Das, Bijaya K. Panigrahi
Real world optimization problems are often too complex to be solved through analytical means. Evolutionary algorithms, a class of algorithms that... Sample PDF
Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms
Chapter 168
M. P. Cuéllar, Miguel Delgado, M. C. Pegalajar
Traditionally, the application of a neural network (Haykin, 1999) to solve a problem has required to follow some steps before to obtain the desired... Sample PDF
Multi-Objective Training of Neural Networks
Chapter 169
Gian Piero Zarri
In a companion article of this Encyclopaedia: ‘Narrative’ Information, the Problem, we have introduced the problem of finding a complete and... Sample PDF
"Narrative" Information and the NKRL Solution
Chapter 170
Gian Piero Zarri
‘Narrative’ information concerns in general the account of some real-life or fictional story (a ‘narrative’) involving concrete or imaginary... Sample PDF
"Narrative" Information Problems
Chapter 171
Gemma Bel Enguix, M. Dolores Jiménez López
During the 20th century, biology—especially molecular biology—has become a pilot science, so that many disciplines have formulated their theories... Sample PDF
Natural Language Processing and Biological Methods
Chapter 172
Vasile Rus, Philip M. McCarthy, Danielle S. McNamara, Arthur C. Graesser
Natural language understanding and assessment is a subset of natural language processing (NLP). The primary purpose of natural language... Sample PDF
Natural Language Understanding and Assessment
Chapter 173
Matthew Szenher
Almost all autonomous robots need to navigate. We define navigation as do Franz & Mallot (2000): “Navigation is the process of determining and... Sample PDF
Navigation by Image-Based Visual Homing
Chapter 174
Sanjoy Das
Real world optimization problems are often too complex to be solved through analytic means. Evolutionary algorithms are a class of algorithms that... Sample PDF
Nelder-Mead Evolutionary Hybrid Algorithms
Chapter 175
Francisco García-Córdova, Antonio Guerrero-González, Fulgencio Marín-García
Neural networks have been used in a number of robotic applications (Das & Kar, 2006; Fierro & Lewis, 1998), including both manipulators and mobile... Sample PDF
Neural Control System for Autonomous Vehicles
Chapter 176
Enrique Romero, Julio J. Valdés, Alan J. Barton
According to the World Health Organization (http:// www.who.int/cancer/en), cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. From a total of 58 million... Sample PDF
Neural Network-Based Visual Data Mining for Cancer Data
Chapter 177
Juergen Perl
Processes in sport like motions or games are influenced by communication, interaction, adaptation, and spontaneous decisions. Therefore, on the one... Sample PDF
Neural Network-Based Process Analysis in Sport
Chapter 178
Daniela Danciu, Vladimir Rasvan
All neural networks, both natural and artificial, are characterized by two kinds of dynamics. The first one is concerned with what we would call... Sample PDF
Neural Networks and Equilibria, Synchronization, and Time Lags
Chapter 179
Juan J. González De la Rosa, Carlos G. Puntonet, A. Moreno-Muñoz
Power quality (PQ) event detection and classification is gaining importance due to worldwide use of delicate electronic devices. Things like... Sample PDF
Neural Networks and HOS for Power Quality Evaluation
Chapter 180
J. Francisco Vargas, Miguel A. Ferrer
Biometric offers potential for automatic personal identification and verification, differently from other means for personal verification; biometric... Sample PDF
Neural Networks on Handwritten Signature Verification
Chapter 181
Vassilis G. Kaburlasos
Computational Intelligence (CI) consists of an evolving collection of methodologies often inspired from nature (Bonissone, Chen, Goebel & Khedkar... Sample PDF
Neural/Fuzzy Computing Based on Lattice Theory
Chapter 182
Tien Ho-Phuoc, Anne Guerin-Dugue
The Self-Organizing Map (Kohonen, 1997) is an effective and a very popular tool for data clustering and visualization. With this method, the input... Sample PDF
A New Self-Organizing Map for Dissimilarity Data
Chapter 183
Chutima Boonthum-Denecke, Irwin B. Levinstein, Danielle S. McNamara, Joseph P. Magliano, Keith K. Millis
Many Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) aim to help students become better readers. The computational challenges involved are (1) to assess the... Sample PDF
NLP Techniques in Intelligent Tutoring Systems
Chapter 184
Carlos M. Travieso González, Aythami Morales Moreno
The verification of identity is becoming a crucial factor in our hugely interconnected society. Questions such as “Is she really who she claims to... Sample PDF
Non-Cooperative Facial Biometric Identification Systems
Chapter 185
Jesús Bernardino Alonso Hernández, Patricia Henríquez Rodríguez
The field of nonlinear signal characterization and nonlinear signal processing has attracted a growing number of researchers in the past three... Sample PDF
Nonlinear Techniques for Signals Characterization
Chapter 186
Mónica Miguélez Rico, José Antonio Seoane Fernández, Julián Dorado de la Calle
The researchers currently have a new tool for dealing with the solution of biomedical problems: the Microarrays. These devices support the study and... Sample PDF
Ontologies and Processing Patterns for Microarrays
Chapter 187
Manuel Lama, Eduardo Sánchez
In the last years, the growing of the Internet have opened the door to new ways of learning and education methodologies. Furthermore, the appearance... Sample PDF
Ontologies for Education and Learning Design
Chapter 188
Ontology Alignment Overview  (pages 1283-1289)
José Manuel Vázquez Naya, Marcos Martínez Romero, Javier Pereira Loureiro, Alejandro Pazos Sierra
At present, ontologies are considered to be an appropriate solution to the problem of heterogeneity in data, since ontological methods make it... Sample PDF
Ontology Alignment Overview
Chapter 189
Marcos Martínez Romero, José Manuel Vázquez Naya, Javier Pereira Loureiro, Norberto Ezquerra
Sometimes the use of a single ontology is not sufficient to cover different vocabularies for the same domain, and it becomes necessary to use... Sample PDF
Ontology Alignment Techniques
Chapter 190
V. Romero-García, E. Fuster-Garcia, J. V. Sánchez-Pérez, L. M. Garcia-Raffi, X. Blasco, J. M. Herrero, J. Sanchis
A genetic algorithm is a global search method based on a simile of the natural evolution. Genetic Algorithms have demonstrated good performance for... Sample PDF
Optimization of the Acoustic Systems
Chapter 191
Stefano Cagnoni, Monica Mordonini
Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a simple but powerful optimization algorithm, introduced by Kennedy and Eberhart (Kennedy 1995). Its search for... Sample PDF
Particle Swarm Optimization and Image Analysis
Chapter 192
Neal Shambaugh
Decision support systems (DSS) are computerized systems that assist humans to make decisions. Early versions were designed for executives, but over... Sample PDF
Personalized Decision Support Systems
Chapter 193
Javier Bajo, Dante I. Tapia, Sara Rodríguez, Juan M. Corchado
Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) have become increasingly relevant for developing distributed and dynamic intelligent environments. The ability... Sample PDF
Planning Agent for Geriatric Residences
Chapter 194
Mohammad Saad Al-Ahmadi, Rathindra Sarathy
Data mining has evolved from a need to make sense of the enormous amounts of data generated by organizations. But data mining comes with its own... Sample PDF
Privacy-Preserving Estimation
Chapter 195
Somasheker Akkaladevi, Ajay K. Katangur, Xin Luo
Prediction of protein secondary structure (alpha-helix, beta-sheet, coil) from primary sequence of amino acids is a very challenging and difficult... Sample PDF
Protein Structure Prediction by Fusion,Bayesian Methods
Chapter 196
Frank-M. Schleif, Thomas Villmann, Barbara Hammer
Bioinformatics has become an important tool to support clinical and biological research and the analysis of functional data, is a common task in... Sample PDF
Prototype Based Classification in Bioinformatics
Chapter 197
Randomized Hough Transform  (pages 1343-1350)
Lei Xu, Erkki Oja
Proposed in 1962, the Hough transform (HT) has been widely applied and investigated for detecting curves, shapes, and motions in the fields of image... Sample PDF
Randomized Hough Transform
Chapter 198
Ranking Functions  (pages 1351-1355)
Franz Huber
Ranking functions have been introduced under the name of ordinal conditional functions in Spohn (1988; 1990). They are representations of epistemic... Sample PDF
Ranking Functions
Chapter 199
Robert Lukomski, Kazimierz Wilkosz
A necessary condition for monitoring and control of a Power System (PS) is possessing a credible model of this system. The PS model for a need of... Sample PDF
RBF Networks for Power System Topology Verification
Chapter 200
José García-Rodríguez, Francisco Flórez-Revuelta, Juan Manuel García-Chamizo
Self-organising neural networks try to preserve the topology of an input space by means of their competitive learning. This capacity has been used... Sample PDF
Representing Non-Rigid Objects with Neural Networks
Chapter 201
A Roadmap on Updates  (pages 1370-1375)
Fernando Zacarías Flores, Dionicio Zacarías Flores, Rosalba Cuapa Canto, Luis Miguel Guzmán Muñoz
Updates, is a central issue in relational databases and knowledge databases. In the last years, it has been well studied in the non-monotonic... Sample PDF
A Roadmap on Updates
Chapter 202
Carlos Herrera, Tom Ziemke, Thomas M. McGinnity
A general goal of biologically inspired robotics is to learn lessons from actual biological systems and to find applications in robot design. Neural... Sample PDF
A Robot Model of Dynamic Appraisal and Response
Chapter 203
Robots in Education  (pages 1383-1388)
Muhammad Ali Yousuf
The new paradigm in engineering education demands hands-on training of the students using technology oriented projects. The roots of this approach... Sample PDF
Robots in Education
Chapter 204
Andrzej Rusiecki
Feedforward neural networks (FFNs) are often considered as universal tools and find their applications in areas such as function approximation... Sample PDF
Robust Learning Algorithm with LTS Error Function
Chapter 205
Kai Keng Ang, Chai Quek
Neuro-fuzzy hybridization is the oldest and most popular methodology in soft computing (Mitra & Hayashi, 2000). Neuro-fuzzy hybridization is known... Sample PDF
Rough Set-Based Neuro-Fuzzy System
Chapter 206
Agostino Poggi, Michele Tomaiuolo
Expert systems are successfully applied to a number of domains. Often built on generic rule-based systems, they can also exploit optimized... Sample PDF
Rule Engines and Agent-Based Systems
Chapter 207
Chun-Cheng Peng, George D. Magoulas
Sequence processing involves several tasks such as clustering, classification, prediction, and transduction of sequential data which can be... Sample PDF
Sequence Processing with Recurrent Neural Networks
Chapter 208
Ioanna Roussaki, Ioannis Papaioannou, Miltiades Anagnostou
In the artificial intelligence domain, an emerging research field that rapidly gains momentum is Automated Negotiations (Fatima, Wooldridge, &... Sample PDF
Shortening Automated Negotiation Threads via Neural Nets
Chapter 209
Fernando Zacarías Flores, Dionicio Zacarías Flores, Rosalba Cuapa Canto, Luis Miguel Guzmán Muñoz
The agent paradigm has recently increased its influence in the research and development of computational logicbased systems. A clear and correct... Sample PDF
Signed Formulae as a New Update Process
Chapter 210
Fatih Onur Hocaoglu, Ömer Nezih Gerek, Mehmet Kurban
The prediction of hourly solar radiation data has important consequences in many solar applications (Markvart, Fragaki & Ross, 2006). Such data can... Sample PDF
Solar Radiation Forecasting Model
Chapter 211
Jesús Bernardino Alonso Hernández, Patricia Henríquez Rodríguez
It is possible to implement help systems for diagnosis oriented to the evaluation of the fonator system using speech signal, by means of techniques... Sample PDF
Speech-Based Clinical Diagnostic Systems
Chapter 212
Carlos M. Travieso González, Carlos F. Romero
Today, advances in Computer Science and the proliferation of computers in modern society are an unquestionable fact. Nevertheless, the continuing... Sample PDF
State of the Art in Writer's Off-Line Identification
Chapter 213
Yan Yan, Yu-Jin Zhang
Over the past few years, face recognition has gained many interests. Face recognition has become a popular area of research in computer vision and... Sample PDF
State-of-the-Art on Video-Based Face Recognition
Chapter 214
Arturo Berrones, Dexmont Peña, Ricardo Sánchez
The optimization of a cost function which has a number of local minima is a relevant subject in many important fields. For instance, the... Sample PDF
Stationary Density of Stochastic Search Processes
Chapter 215
Mirjam Sepesy Maucec, Zdravko Kacic
A language model is a description of language. Although grammar has been the prevalent tool in modelling language for a long time, interest has... Sample PDF
Statistical Modelling of Highly Inflective Languages
Chapter 216
Snorre Aunet, Hans Kristian Otnes Berge
In this article we compare a number of full-adder (1- bit addition) cells regarding minimum supply voltage and yield, when taking statistical... Sample PDF
Statistical Simulations on Perceptron-Based Adders
Chapter 217
Faming Liang
Over the past several decades, multilayer perceptrons (MLPs) have achieved increased popularity among scientists, engineers, and other professionals... Sample PDF
Stochastic Approximation Monte Carlo for MLP Learning
Chapter 218
M. Martínez-Zarzuela, F. J. Díaz Pernas, D. González Ortega, J. F. Díez Higuera, M. Antón Rodríguez
An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is a computational structure inspired by the study of biological neural processing. Although neurons are... Sample PDF
Stream Processing of a Neural Classifier I
Chapter 219
M. Martínez-Zarzuela, F. J. Díaz Pernas, D. González Ortega, J. F. Díez Higuera, M. Antón Rodríguez
This article presents a real-time Fuzzy ART neural classifier for skin segmentation implemented on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). GPUs have... Sample PDF
Stream Processing of a Neural Classifier II
Chapter 220
Pi-Sheng Deng
Performance of genetic algorithms (GAs) is mainly determined by several factors. Not only the genetic operators affect the performance of a GA with... Sample PDF
A Study of the Performance Effect of Genetic Operators
Chapter 221
M. Mohammadian
Conventionally modelling and simulation of complex nonlinear systems has been to construct a mathematical model and examine the system’s evolution... Sample PDF
Supervised Learning of Fuzzy Logic Systems
Chapter 222
Support Vector Machines  (pages 1518-1523)
Cecilio Angulo, Luis Gonzalez-Abril
Support Vector Machines -- SVMs -- are learning machines, originally designed for bi-classification problems, implementing the well-known Structural... Sample PDF
Support Vector Machines
Chapter 223
Ioannis Papaioannou, Ioanna Roussaki, Miltiades Anagnostou
Automated negotiation is a very challenging research field that is gaining momentum in the e-business domain. There are three main categories of... Sample PDF
A Survey on Neural Networks in Automated Negotiations
Chapter 224
Prayag Narula, Sudip Misra, Sanjay Kumar Dhurandher
Wireless ad-hoc networks are infrastructureless and they consist of nodes that come together and start communicating dynamically without requiring... Sample PDF
Swarm Intelligence Approach for Ad-Hoc Networks
Chapter 225
Swarm Robotics  (pages 1537-1542)
Amanda J.C. Sharkey
Swarm Robotics is a biologically inspired approach to the organisation and control of groups of robots. Its biological inspiration is mainly drawn... Sample PDF
Swarm Robotics
Chapter 226
Symbol Grounding Problem  (pages 1543-1548)
Angelo Loula, João Queiroz
The topic of representation acquisition, manipulation and use has been a major trend in Artificial Intelligence since its beginning and persists as... Sample PDF
Symbol Grounding Problem
Chapter 227
Symbolic Search  (pages 1549-1554)
Stefan Edelkamp
Symbolic search solves state space problems consisting of an initial state, a set of goal states, and a set of actions using a succinct... Sample PDF
Symbolic Search
Chapter 228
Snorre Aunet
Many different synthetic neuron implementations exist, that include a variety of traits associated with biological neurons and our understanding of... Sample PDF
Synthetic Neuron Implementations
Chapter 229
Raymond Chiong
In the field of Natural Language Processing, one of the very important research areas of Information Extraction (IE) comes in Named Entity... Sample PDF
Teaching Machines to Find Names
Chapter 230
T. T. Wong, C. W. Leung
Recent advances in the applications of ANN have demonstrated successful cases in time series analysis, data mining, civil engineering, financial... Sample PDF
Thermal Design of Gas-Fired Cooktop Burners Through ANN
Chapter 231
Fernando Mateo, Ramón J. Aliaga, Jorge D. Martínez, José Ma Monzó, Rafael Gadea
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a radiotracer imaging technique based on the administration (typically by injection) of compounds labelled... Sample PDF
A 2D Positioning Application in PET Using ANNs
Chapter 232
Pablo Mesejo, Enrique Fernández-Blanco, Diego Martínez-Feijóo, Francisco J. Blanco
This paper presents the preliminary studies for the creation of a new tool to assist in medical diagnostic. The tool will help in the analysis of... Sample PDF
2D-PAGE Analysis Using Evolutionary Computation
Chapter 233
Julio J. Valdés, Alan J. Barton
According to the World Health Organization(WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations system... Sample PDF
Visualizing Cancer Databases Using Hybrid Spaces
Chapter 234
Adnan Khashman, Kadri Buruncuk, Samir Jabr
The explosive growth in decision-support systems over the past 30 years has yielded numerous “intelligent” systems that have often produced... Sample PDF
Voltage Instability Detection Using Neural Networks
Chapter 235
Alberte Castro Ponte, Gregorio Iglesias, Francisco Taveira Pinto, Rodrigo Carballo
Several types of structures are used in Coastal Engineering with the aim of preventing shoreline erosion, such as groynes, detached breakwaters... Sample PDF
Wave Reflection at Submerged Breakwaters
Chapter 236
Sylvia Encheva, Sharil Tumin
The issue of rewarding partially correct answers has been addressed by many authors (Guzman, E. & Conejo, R., 2004, Gardner-Medwin, A.R. 1995... Sample PDF
Web-Based Assessment System Applying Many-Valued Logic
Chapter 237
Marina Flores-Badillo, Ernesto López-Mellado
Nowadays Information Systems (IS) are designed for individual task execution control allowing coordinating, monitoring, and supporting the... Sample PDF
Workflow Management Based on Mobile Agent Technology
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