Is Entropy Suitable to Characterize Data and Signals for Cognitive Informatics?

Is Entropy Suitable to Characterize Data and Signals for Cognitive Informatics?

Withold Kinsner (University of Manitoba, Canada)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 24
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-170-4.ch002
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Abstract

This chapter provides a review of Shannon and other entropy measures in evaluating the quality of materials used in perception, cognition, and learning processes. Energy-based metrics are not suitable for cognition, as energy itself does not carry information. Instead, morphological (structural and contextual) metrics as well as entropybased multiscale metrics should be considered in cognitive informatics. Appropriate data and signal transformation processes are defined and discussed in the perceptual framework, followed by various classes of information and entropies suitable for characterization of data, signals, and distortion. Other entropies are also described, including the Rényi generalized entropy spectrum, Kolmogorov complexity measure, Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, and Prigogine entropy for evolutionary dynamical systems. Although such entropy-based measures are suitable for many signals, they are not sufficient for scale-invariant (fractal and multifractal) signals without corresponding complementary multiscale measures.
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Introduction

This chapter is concerned with measuring the quality of various materials used in perception, cognition and evolutionary learning processes. The multimedia materials may include temporal signals such as sound, speech, music, biomedical and telemetry signals, as well as spatial signals such as still images, and spatio-temporal signals such as animation and video. A comprehensive review of the scope of multimedia storage and transmission is presented by Kinsner (2002). Most of such original materials are altered (compressed or enhanced) either to fit the available storage or bandwidth during their transmission, or to enhance perception of the materials. Since the signals may also be contaminated by noise during different stages of their processing and transmission, various denoising techniques must be used to minimize the noise, without affecting the signal itself (Kinsner, 2002). Different classes of coloured and fractal noise are described by Kinsner (1996). The multimedia compression is often lossy in that the signals are altered with respect not only to their redundancy, but also to their cognitive relevancy. Since the signals are presented to humans, cognitive processes must be considered in the development of suitable quality metrics. This chapter describes a very fundamental class of metrics based on entropy, and identifies its usefulness and limitations in the area of cognitive informatics (CI) (Wang, 2002).

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Table of Contents
Acknowledgment
Yingxu Wang
Chapter 1
Yingxu Wang
Cognitive Informatics (CI) is a transdisciplinary enquiry of the internal information processing mechanisms and processes of the brain and natural... Sample PDF
The Theoretical Framework of Cognitive Informatics
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Chapter 2
Withold Kinsner
This chapter provides a review of Shannon and other entropy measures in evaluating the quality of materials used in perception, cognition, and... Sample PDF
Is Entropy Suitable to Characterize Data and Signals for Cognitive Informatics?
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Chapter 3
Ismael Rodríguez, Manuel Núñez, Fernando Rubio
Finite State Machines (FSM) are formalisms that have been used for decades to describe the behavior of systems. They can also provide an intelligent... Sample PDF
Cognitive Processes by using Finite State Machines
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Chapter 4
Yingxu Wang
An interactive motivation-attitude theory is developed based on the Layered Reference Model of the Brain (LRMB) and the Object-Attribute-Relation... Sample PDF
On the Cognitive Processes of Human Perception with Emotions, Motivations, and Attitudes
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Chapter 5
Qingyong Li, Zhiping Shi, Zhongzhi Shi
Sparse coding theory demonstrates that the neurons in the primary visual cortex form a sparse representation of natural scenes in the viewpoint of... Sample PDF
A Selective Sparse Coding Model with Embedded Attention Mechanism
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Chapter 6
Yingxu Wang
Theoretical research is predominately an inductive process, while applied research is mainly a deductive process. Both inference processes are based... Sample PDF
The Cognitive Processes of Formal Inferences
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Chapter 7
Douglas Griffith, Frank L. Greitzer
The purpose of this article is to re-address the vision of human-computer symbiosis as originally expressed by J.C.R. Licklider nearly a... Sample PDF
Neo-Symbiosis: The Next Stage in the Evolution of Human Information Interaction
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Chapter 8
Ray E. Jennings
Although linguistics may treat languages as a syntactic and/or semantic entity that regulates both language production and comprehension, this... Sample PDF
Language, Logic, and the Brain
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Chapter 9
Yingxu Wang, Guenther Ruhe
Decision making is one of the basic cognitive processes of human behaviors by which a preferred option or a course of actions is chosen from among a... Sample PDF
The Cognitive Process of Decision Making
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Chapter 10
Tiansi Dong
This chapter proposes a commonsense understanding of distance and orientation knowledge between extended objects, and presents a formal... Sample PDF
A Commonsense Approach to Representing Spatial Knowledge Between Extended Objects
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Chapter 11
Natalia López, Manuel Núñez, Fernando L. Pelayo
In this chapter we present the formal language, stochastic process algebra (STOPA), to specify cognitive systems. In addition to the usual... Sample PDF
A Formal Specification of the Memorization Process
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Chapter 12
Yingxu Wang
Autonomic computing (AC) is an intelligent computing approach that autonomously carries out robotic and interactive applications based on goal- and... Sample PDF
Theoretical Foundations of Autonomic Computing
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Chapter 13
Witold Kinsner
Numerous attempts are being made to develop machines that could act not only autonomously, but also in an increasingly intelligent and cognitive... Sample PDF
Towards Cognitive Machines: Multiscale Measures and Analysis
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Chapter 14
Amar Ramdane-Cherif
Cognitive approach through the neural network (NN) paradigm is a critical discipline that will help bring about autonomic computing (AC). NN-related... Sample PDF
Towards Autonomic Computing: Adaptive Neural Network for Trajectory Planning
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Chapter 15
Lee Flax
We give an approach to cognitive modelling, which allows for richer expression than the one based simply on the firing of sets of neurons. The... Sample PDF
Cognitive Modelling Applied to Aspects of Schizophrenia and Autonomic Computing
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Chapter 16
Yan Zhao, Yiyu Yao
Classification is one of the main tasks in machine learning, data mining, and pattern recognition. Compared with the extensively studied automation... Sample PDF
Interactive Classification Using a Granule Network
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Chapter 17
Mehdi Najjar, André Mayers
Encouraging results of last years in the field of knowledge representation within virtual learning environments confirms that artificial... Sample PDF
A Cognitive Computational Knowledge Representation Theory
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Chapter 18
Du Zhang
A crucial component of an intelligent system is its knowledge base that contains knowledge about a problem domain. Knowledge base development... Sample PDF
A Fixpoint Semantics for Rule-Base Anomalies
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Chapter 19
Christine W. Chan
This chapter presents a method for ontology construction and its application in developing ontology in the domain of natural gas pipeline... Sample PDF
Development of an Ontology for an Industrial Domain
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Chapter 20
Václav Rajlich, Shaochun Xu
This article explores the non-monotonic nature of the programmer learning that takes place during incremental program development. It uses a... Sample PDF
Constructivist Learning During Software Development
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Chapter 21
Witold Kinsner
Many scientific chapters treat the diversity of fractal dimensions as mere variations on either the same theme or a single definition. There is a... Sample PDF
A Unified Approach to Fractal Dimensions
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Chapter 22
Du Zhang, Witold Kinsner, Jeffrey Tsai, Yingxu Wang, Philip Sheu, Taehyung Wang
The 2005 IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics (ICCI’05) was held during August 8th to 10th 2005 on the campus of University of... Sample PDF
Cognitive Informatics: Four Years in Practice
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Chapter 23
Yiyu Yao, Zhongzhi Shi, Yingxu Wang, Witold Kinsner, Yixin Zhong, Guoyin Wang
Cognitive informatics (CI) is a cutting-edge and multidisciplinary research area that tackles the fundamental problems shared by modern informatics... Sample PDF
Toward Cognitive Informatics and Cognitive Computers: A Report on IEEE ICCI'06
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