Estimation of Amounts of Waste Generated from Healthcare Facilities

Estimation of Amounts of Waste Generated from Healthcare Facilities

Mohamad K. Kayyal (Damascus University, Syria)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-930708-02-0.ch014
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In response to government and public pressures, the healthcare industry has in the past few years directed a significant effort toward the proper and safe management of its medical waste streams. Medical waste is classified as a biohazardous waste, which according to a study published by the United States Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1990), may result in human infection and transfer of disease. This includes injury and infection with the Hepatitis B Virus (HVB) and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), by janitorial and laundry workers, nurses, emergency medical personnel, and refuse workers who may come into contact with medical waste. In a recent survey conducted in the United States and Japan, and reported by the World Heath Organization (WHO) (1994), it was found that injuries by sharps constitute about 1% to 2% per annum for nurses and maintenance workers and 18% per annum for outside waste management workers. In Japan, the survey indicated that injuries by sharps constitute about 67% for in-hospital waste handlers and 44% for outside waste management workers. In order to reduce the risks associated with medical waste, proper management mechanisms should be adopted by healthcare facilities to protect the health of the staff within the medical facility, waste collectors/workers, and the public once the waste has left the facility for final disposal. These mechanisms include waste identification, segregation, storage, and treatment. However, and as a first step in the implementation of a waste management system, the management of a medical facility should conduct an audit of the generated waste streams.

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Table of Contents
Claus Rautenstrauch, Susanne Patig
Chapter 1
Bernd Page, Claus Rautenstrauch
The protection of our environment remains one of the greatest challenges in industrialized societies. This challenge is addressing politics, economy... Sample PDF
Environmental Informatics - Methods, Tools and Applications in Environmental Information Processing
Chapter 2
Patrick J. Ogao, Connie A. Blok
Measurements from dynamic environmental phenomena have resulted in the acquisition and generation of an enormous amount of data. This upsurge in... Sample PDF
Cognitive Aspects on the Representation of Dynamic Environmental Phenomena Using Animations
Chapter 3
Eberhard Gulch
Sustainability and protection of the environment are requirements of high priority in our society. These tasks need an efficient monitoring of the... Sample PDF
3D Modelling of Urban Environment: Data Collection Techniques
Chapter 4
Ubbo Visser, Heiner Stuckenschmidt, Holger Wache, Thomas Vogele
Environmental information systems have gained more importance both in the public administration and industry since the beginning of 1990. For... Sample PDF
Using Environmental Information Efficiently: Sharing Data and Knowledge from Heterogeneous Sources
Chapter 5
Thomas Blaschke
Integrated ecological information systems are characterized by a broad range of thematic spatial data layers and a variety of specific application... Sample PDF
Environmental Monitoring and Management of Protected Areas through Integrated Ecological Information Systems - An EU Perspective
Chapter 6
Gilbert Ahamer
This contribution presents four modelling frameworks that can be structured along their level of detail, their geographic coverage and their degree... Sample PDF
A Structured Basket of Models for Global Change
Chapter 7
Goetz Wiegand, Volker Diegmann
FLADIS is an extendable software system integrated in a Geographical Information System (GIS) for displaying temporal and spatial distributions of... Sample PDF
FLADIS - A GIS Based System for Extending Air Pollution Point Data to Continuous Spatial Information
Chapter 8
A. Van Rompaey, G. Govers
Soil erosion is regarded as a major and widespread soil degradation process. The consequences of soil erosion occur both on- and off-site. On-site... Sample PDF
Assessing the Impacts of Land Use Policy on Soil Erosion Risk: Possibilities and Constraints of Geographical Information Systems
Chapter 9
G. Tsoumakas, I. Vlahavas
A major environmental concern of today’s scientists is the inefficient exploitation of natural resources. The land is the ultimate source of wealth... Sample PDF
Land Evaluation - An Artificial Intelligence Approach
Chapter 10
Lorenz M. Hilty, Ruth Meyer, Thomas F. Ruddy
Traffic comprises a large and persistently growing share of resource consumption and environmental stress in modern economies. Even on our way... Sample PDF
A General Modelling and Simulation System for Sustainability Impact Assessment in the Field of Traffic and Logistics
Chapter 11
V. Kamp
Applications like environmental information systems define various scenarios of multidimensional data analysis, and they require special efforts... Sample PDF
Explorative Data Analysis Support for Environmental Epidemiology
Chapter 12
Victor P. Belogurov
Many emergency safety problems are connected to detection of risk zones. It is not enough only to display on a map sources of risk and protected... Sample PDF
GIS Application for Detection of Ecological Risk Zones
Chapter 13
Hubert B. Keller, Bernd Muller, Andreas Fick
Presently waste incineration is one of the most commonly used techniques for residual waste processing. It is an important step of making inert and... Sample PDF
Innovative Control Methods in Waste Management
Chapter 14
Mohamad K. Kayyal
In response to government and public pressures, the healthcare industry has in the past few years directed a significant effort toward the proper... Sample PDF
Estimation of Amounts of Waste Generated from Healthcare Facilities
Chapter 15
Azedine Boulmakoul, Robert Laurini, Karine Zeitouni
The concept of Environmental Information Systems (EIS) emerged from the concerns and the efforts carried on by world wide private and official... Sample PDF
Spatial Monitoring and Routing System for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials
Chapter 16
E. Luque
Forest fire are one of the most critical environmental risks in all the Mediterranean countries. The fight against these emergencies requires useful... Sample PDF
High Performance Computing, Simulation and Forest Fires
Chapter 17
Nick A. Theophilopoulos, Pavlos Kassomenos
Emergencies are most probably the most important issue at the European and, of course, at the international level, in terms of impact to the... Sample PDF
Modelling and Simulation of Environmental Hazards
Chapter 18
F. GuarnierI, S. Olampi, A. Napoli
In forest fire research, it is now accepted that computational simulation and databases have become essential components of the scientific process... Sample PDF
Toward a "Virtual Laboratory" to Support Forest Fire Behaviour Modelling and Metrology
Chapter 19
Stefan Gobel, Uwe Jasnoch
The more information and data are produced by the actual information society, the more important become mechanisms and systems which organize the... Sample PDF
Metadata Information Systems for Geospatial Data
Chapter 20
Kristina Voigt, Gerhard Welzl, Joachim Benz
Chemistry and the environmental sciences are scientific disciplines with an enormous output of and demand for data. As of June 8th, 2000, 16,813,792... Sample PDF
Meta Information System for Environmental Chemicals: Set-up and Analysis of its Contents
Chapter 21
Virginia Brilhante, Dave Robertson
Ecological models should be rooted in data derived from observation, allowing methodical model construction and clear accounts of model results with... Sample PDF
Metadata-Supported Automated Ecological Modelling
Chapter 22
Klaus Tochtermann, Andree Keitel, Thomas Schutz
Reporting to and providing the public with information on the environment is becoming increasingly important for governmental environmental agencies... Sample PDF
Environmental Reporting in Print and Electronic Media
Chapter 23
Hans-Knud Arndt, Mario Christ, Oliver Gunther
Organizations of all kinds are increasingly forced to develop an environmental conflict strategy. Otherwise, in the case of environmental conflicts... Sample PDF
Environmental Reporting in the Public Interest
Chapter 24
Jorg V. Steinaecker, Gunnar Jurgens
Within Germany’s industry the issue of environmental protection has increased in importance within recent years. A distinct indicator to support... Sample PDF
Material Flow Management in the Machine Building Industry
Chapter 25
Jurgen Hesselbach, Karsten V. Westernhagen
While in the past only the product phases of development, production, distribution as well as use and service were considered, today, more complete... Sample PDF
An Integrated Approach for the Planning and Control of Flexible Retro-Production Systems
Chapter 26
Andreas Moller, Bernd Page, Arno Rolf, Volker Wohlgemuth
This chapter describes the foundations of Material Flow Networks for environmental management and gives an overview about their application fields.... Sample PDF
Foundations and Applications of Computer Based Material Flow Networks for Environmental Management
Chapter 27
Alexander Huber, Jorge Marx-Gomez, Claus Rautenstrauch
For some years, the massive spreading of technically complex products as well as the shortening of product life cycles have led to a constantly... Sample PDF
Recycling and Disassembly Planning
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