This chapter provides a short guide on the use of evolutionary computation methods in the field of production research. The application of evolutionary computation methods is explained using a number of typical examples taken from the areas of production scheduling, assembly lines, and cellular manufacturing. A detailed case study on the solution of the cell-formation problem illustrates the benefits of the proposed approach. The chapter also provides a critical review on the up-to-date use of evolutionary computation methods in the field of production research and indicates potential enhancements as well as promising application areas. The aim of the chapter is to present researchers, practitioners, and managers with a basic understanding of the current use of evolutionary computation techniques and allow them to either initiate further research or employ the existing algorithms in order to optimize their production lines.