In the 1990s, flexibility of where and when learning took place grew in significance to learners and providers of learning. For learners it meant they could learn at times and in places that suited them. Flexibility gave many students access to education that had previously been denied due to commitments such as work and family. Managers of higher education saw flexibility as a way to increase participation rates without a concomitant increase in resources and staff. In human resource development, flexibility meant that learners could learn when it suited the organization or the task and hence maximize performance gains while minimizing time away from work. In both contexts, flexibility of the time and place of learning was seen a way to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of learning. Flexibility in learning is generally characterized by the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs).