Exploring the Development of M-Government: Case Studies of Korea and Kenya's Mobile Banking Sector

Exploring the Development of M-Government: Case Studies of Korea and Kenya's Mobile Banking Sector

Yejoo Kim (Stellenbosch University, South Africa)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-5844-8.ch015
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The focus of this chapter is on exploring the possibilities available to African countries that wish to construct and enable m-government. The mobile banking sectors in Korea and Kenya are explored in order to find out the driving forces behind the success and failure of m-government projects. Using Actor-Network Theory (ANT), it is possible to observe how the networks come into being, which actors exist, how these actors are enrolled into a network, and how these networks achieve stability. ANT enables us to extract some elements that African countries must concentrate on if they wish to push forward with m-government initiatives and follow the example set by these two countries.
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Information and Communications Technology (ICT) has been a powerful driver for social and economic development in many countries. The countries with the highest incomes are now all known as knowledge economies. It is possible to observe that the knowledge economy is accompanied by the increasing importance of ICT, and that the emergence of e-government is common in high income countries (Foray & Lundvall, 1996). The UN Global E-government Readiness Report 2005 (Hafeez & Sher, 2006) indicates that “e-government includes the capacity and the willingness of the public sector to deploy ICT for improving knowledge and information in the service of the citizens.” Using ICT does not only help the public sector to enhance its efficiency and effectiveness, but the government can also increase its transparency through reciprocal interaction with its citizens. The increasing complexity of e-government processes married with the development of Internet enabled mobile devices has recently resulted in the idea of m-government coming to the fore.

The evolution of e-government initiatives and m-government is explored in this chapter. The focus is on the mobile banking sector in Korea and Kenya. The Korean government has successfully harnessed ICT to achieve greater efficiency and productivity in the public sector. Its efforts have been recognised internationally, with Korea consistently ranking first among countries in the world in various e-government surveys. Furthermore, the country has been promoting m-government along with its high-level of mobile technology (UN, 2012). Considering that the country has transformed itself from a developing to a developed country within only a few decades, the country’s successful turn to e and m-government can serve as a powerful example to other developing countries. The case of Kenya, one of the leading countries in e-government among developing countries (UN, 2012), is also explored in this chapter. M-PESA, the mobile payment system launched in Kenya, will serve as an important reference point in the analysis here. The opportunities and challenges that these two countries, Kenya and Korea, faced in the process of pushing forward m-government initiatives will be identified and interrogated.

This chapter begins with the definition and characteristics of e-government and m-government will be examined. Then the focus will move on to the prerequisites for success. ANT, which evolved from the work of Callon (1991) and Latour (1992) and which serves as the theoretical framework of the research, will be discussed. ANT will be utilised for the analysis of the constitution of the networks consisting of the various actors in the two countries. It is notable that the both governments played a significant role in initiating and implementing a wide range of ICT programmes in the development of e-government and m-government. However, the evolution process included a wide array of actors. The chapter will show how these actors’ efficient networking and cooperation brought about the success of m-government initiatives.

The research is based on secondary sources such as articles in academic journals and books. Primary sources such as official government records, annual reports and various published documents, are also used. This enables the researcher to develop a comprehensive view of the m-payment initiatives in Korea and Kenya. Currently, there are, in many African countries, a number of m-government initiatives in the planning stage or in the process of being established. For example, Rwanda has a national programme supporting the HIV positive and the Department of Home Affairs in South Africa provides services that help citizens to track ID document application via Short Message Services (SMS) (Middleton, 2011). Through this research, it will be possible to extract some lessons from the cases of Korean and Kenyan m-government for future reference.

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Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
Table of Contents
Kwaku Addo Sakyi-Addo
Lloyd G. Adu Amoah
Lloyd G. Adu Amoah
Chapter 1
Kajsa Hallberg Adu
This chapter offers a critical examination of the “collaborative development model” (UNESCO, 2005) or the Knowledge Societies discourse. By... Sample PDF
What is the Opposite of a Knowledge Society?
Chapter 2
John Bosco Mayiga
In 2006, the International Telecommunication Union resolved on a digital terrestrial broadcasting plan to migrate all television broadcasting... Sample PDF
Digital Television and its (Dys)Functions in Africa
Chapter 3
Lord C. Mawuko-Yevugah
Over the past few years, Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) have been promoted by Western development agencies in Africa and other... Sample PDF
ICTs and the (Re)Production of Development Knowledge in Africa
Chapter 4
Owais Hassan Shaikh, Yifat Nahmias
This chapter highlights the current developments in the area of intellectual property having direct consequence for the prospects of Africa's... Sample PDF
Doing It Different: Shaping African Knowledge Society under the Influence of Bilateral Intellectual Property Standards
Chapter 5
Stephen E. Armah
This chapter investigates the possibility of anti-competitive behavior in the Ghana telecommunication sector and determines exploratorily if there... Sample PDF
Ensuring Competition in the Telecommunication Business Environment in Ghana: How Relevant is the Enactment of an Anti-Trust Law?
Chapter 6
Sean Clark
The solution to the fragility and instability that accompanied Africa's newly independent states was widely seen as the adoption of strong... Sample PDF
Blogging under Behemoth: Does Communications Technology Make African Politics More Competitive?
Chapter 7
Lloyd G. Adu Amoah
The growing penetration of mobile telephony in Africa reflects arguably the continent's increasing embeddedness into the concourses of the... Sample PDF
The Rise of Telcos and Africa's Knowledge Society: What Have Telchambs Got to Do With It?
Chapter 8
Nathaniel O. Agola
Knowledge use in socio-economic activities is a critical determinant of the divide between countries and regions into low-productivity-low-wage and... Sample PDF
Creating Knowledge Society for Economic and Social Growth in Africa: The Ten Fundamental Pillars
Chapter 9
Charles Conteh, Greg Smith
Governments worldwide, including those in Africa, are embracing the promises and prospects of electronic service delivery (or e-government). In... Sample PDF
Towards an Interactive E-Government System in Sub-Saharan Africa: Prospects and Challenges
Chapter 10
Paul Ankomah, Trent Larson
Ghana is continuously exploring new development models to generate economic growth and enhance the life of her citizens. Tourism has been identified... Sample PDF
ICT and Skills Transfer: The Case for Diaspora Involvement in Tourism Development in Ghana
Chapter 11
Chantal Philips, Wulystan P. Mtega, Arja Vainio-Mattila
Social, economic, and cultural factors are known to influence the knowledge sharing process between governments and rural communities. There is... Sample PDF
Knowledge Sharing between Local Government and Rural Remote Communities in Tanzania: Technology Strategies and Cultural Practice Can Work Together
Chapter 12
Marwa Soudi
The world is approaching a third industrial revolution. This is forcefully reflected in the phenomenal advancement in the robotics field. In order... Sample PDF
Robotics Education in Africa: Africa Compete
Chapter 13
Cedric Pierre-Louis
This chapter interrogates the migration process from Analog to Digital Terrestrial Television occurring in Rwanda, which has, since May 2013... Sample PDF
Rwanda Leapfrogs into Digital Broadcasting Migration: Challenges and Opportunities
Chapter 14
Li Wengang, Chen Yulai, Guo Jia
Since the Reform and Opening up in the late 1970s, China has been seeking an innovation-driven knowledge society. In the past decade, the central... Sample PDF
Constructing the Knowledge Society: China's Experience
Chapter 15
Yejoo Kim
The focus of this chapter is on exploring the possibilities available to African countries that wish to construct and enable m-government. The... Sample PDF
Exploring the Development of M-Government: Case Studies of Korea and Kenya's Mobile Banking Sector
Chapter 16
Olga Rataj
Following a comprehensive description of the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) policies implemented by Huawei—the leading multinational Chinese... Sample PDF
Huawei's ICT Investments in Africa: Analysis of the Influence of the Company's Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Policies on the Emergence of the Continent's Knowledge Society
About the Contributors