This chapter provides a comprehensive awareness and understanding of research efforts in the field of extreme rate-distributed video transcoding. The basic concepts and theories of rate control methods such as requantization, temporal resolution reduction, spatial resolution reduction, and object-based transcoding are introduced. We will identify each rate control scheme’s strengths and weaknesses and provide a distributed video transcoding system architecture that uses multiple transcoding techniques in the creation of an extreme rate video. Experimental results show that the appropriate use of multiple transcoding schemes retains a better quality video in an extreme rate control. At the end of this chapter, we will identify unsolved problems and related issues and will offer suggestions for future research directions.