Face for Interface

Face for Interface

Maja Pantic (Imperial College London, UK)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-014-1.ch075
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The human face is involved in an impressive variety of different activities. It houses the majority of our sensory apparatus: eyes, ears, mouth, and nose, allowing the bearer to see, hear, taste, and smell. Apart from these biological functions, the human face provides a number of signals essential for interpersonal communication in our social life. The face houses the speech production apparatus and is used to identify other members of the species, to regulate the conversation by gazing or nodding, and to interpret what has been said by lip reading. It is our direct and naturally preeminent means of communicating and understanding somebody’s affective state and intentions on the basis of the shown facial expression (Lewis & Haviland-Jones, 2000). Personality, attractiveness, age, and gender can also be seen from someone’s face. Thus the face is a multisignal sender/receiver capable of tremendous flexibility and specificity. In general, the face conveys information via four kinds of signals listed in Table 1. Automating the analysis of facial signals, especially rapid facial signals, would be highly beneficial for fields as diverse as security, behavioral science, medicine, communication, and education. In security contexts, facial expressions play a crucial role in establishing or detracting from credibility. In medicine, facial expressions are the direct means to identify when specific mental processes are occurring. In education, pupils’ facial expressions inform the teacher of the need to adjust the instructional message. As far as natural user interfaces between humans and computers (PCs/robots/machines) are concerned, facial expressions provide a way to communicate basic information about needs and demands to the machine. In fact, automatic analysis of rapid facial signals seem to have a natural place in various vision subsystems and vision-based interfaces (face-for-interface tools), including automated tools for gaze and focus of attention tracking, lip reading, bimodal speech processing, face/visual speech synthesis, face-based command issuing, and facial affect processing. Where the user is looking (i.e., gaze tracking) can be effectively used to free computer users from the classic keyboard and mouse. Also, certain facial signals (e.g., a wink) can be associated with certain commands (e.g., a mouse click) offering an alternative to traditional keyboard and mouse commands. The human capability to “hear” in noisy environments by means of lip reading is the basis for bimodal (audiovisual) speech processing that can lead to the realization of robust speech-driven interfaces. To make a believable “talking head” (avatar) representing a real person, tracking the person’s facial signals and making the avatar mimic those using synthesized speech and facial expressions is compulsory. The human ability to read emotions from someone’s facial expressions is the basis of facial affect processing that can lead to expanding user interfaces with emotional communication and, in turn, to obtaining a more flexible, adaptable, and natural affective interfaces between humans and machines. More specifically, the information about when the existing interaction/processing should be adapted, the importance of such an adaptation, and how the interaction/ reasoning should be adapted, involves information about how the user feels (e.g., confused, irritated, tired, interested). Examples of affect-sensitive user interfaces are still rare, unfortunately, and include the systems of Lisetti and Nasoz (2002), Maat and Pantic (2006), and Kapoor, Burleson, and Picard (2007). It is this wide range of principle driving applications that has lent a special impetus to the research problem of automatic facial expression analysis and produced a surge of interest in this research topic.
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Introduction: The Human Face

The human face is involved in an impressive variety of different activities. It houses the majority of our sensory apparatus: eyes, ears, mouth, and nose, allowing the bearer to see, hear, taste, and smell. Apart from these biological functions, the human face provides a number of signals essential for interpersonal communication in our social life. The face houses the speech production apparatus and is used to identify other members of the species, to regulate the conversation by gazing or nodding, and to interpret what has been said by lip reading. It is our direct and naturally preeminent means of communicating and understanding somebody’s affective state and intentions on the basis of the shown facial expression (Lewis & Haviland-Jones, 2000). Personality, attractiveness, age, and gender can also be seen from someone’s face. Thus the face is a multisignal sender/receiver capable of tremendous flexibility and specificity. In general, the face conveys information via four kinds of signals listed in Table 1.

Table 1.
Four types of facial signals
Static facial signals represent relatively permanent features of the face, such as the bony structure, the soft tissue, and the overall proportions of the face. These signals are usually exploited for person identification.
Slow facial signals represent changes in the appearance of the face that occur gradually over time, such as development of permanent wrinkles and changes in skin texture. These signals can be used for assessing the age of an individual.
Artificial signals are exogenous features of the face such as glasses and cosmetics. These signals provide additional information that can be used for gender recognition.
• • Rapid facial signals represent temporal changes in neuromuscular activity that may lead to visually detectable changes in facial appearance, including blushing and tears. These (atomic facial) signals underlie facial expressions.

Automating the analysis of facial signals, especially rapid facial signals, would be highly beneficial for fields as diverse as security, behavioral science, medicine, communication, and education. In security contexts, facial expressions play a crucial role in establishing or detracting from credibility. In medicine, facial expressions are the direct means to identify when specific mental processes are occurring. In education, pupils’ facial expressions inform the teacher of the need to adjust the instructional message.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Lip Reading: The human ability to “hear” in noisy environments by analyzing visible speech signals, that is, by analyzing the movements of the lips and the surrounding facial region. Integrating both visual speech processing and acoustic speech processing results in a more robust bimodal (audiovisual) speech processing.

Automatic Facial Expression Analysis: A process of locating the face in an input image, extracting facial features from the detected face region, and classifying these data into some facial-expression-interpretative categories such as facial muscle action categories, emotion (affect) categories, attitude categories, and so forth.

Face Synthesis: A process of creating a “talking head” which is able to speak, to display (appropriate) lip movements during speech, and to display expressive facial movements.

Machine Vision: A field of computer science concerned with the question of how to construct computer programs that automatically analyze images and produce descriptions of what is imaged.

Face-Based Interface: Regulating (at least partially) the command flow that streams between the user and the computer by means of facial signals. This means associating certain commands (e.g., mouse pointing, mose clicking, etc.) with certain facial signals (e.g., gaze direction, winking, etc.). Face-based interface can be effectively used to free computer users from classic keyboard and mouse commands.

Ambient Intelligence: The merging of mobile communications and sensing technologies, with the aim of enabling a pervasive and unobtrusive intelligence in the surrounding environment supporting the activities and interactions of the users. Technologies like face-based interfaces and affective computing are inherent ambient-intelligence technologies.

Machine Learning: A field of computer science concerned with the question of how to construct computer programs that automatically improve with experience. The key algorithms that form the core of machine learning include neural networks, genetic algorithms, support vector machines, Bayesian networks, and Markov models.

Complete Chapter List

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Charles H. Fine
Margherita Pagani
Chapter 1
Margherita Pagani
The transition process from analog to digital system, above all in the broadcasting field, and the development of Third Generation standards in... Sample PDF
Accessibility, Usability, and Functionality in T-Government Services
Chapter 2
Ju Wang, Jonathan C.L. Liu
Recent years have witnessed the rapid progress in handheld devices. This has resulted in a growing number of mobile phones or PDAs that have a... Sample PDF
Advances of Radio Interface in WCDMA Systems
Chapter 3
Affective Computing  (pages 15-21)
Maja Pantic
We seem to be entering an era of enhanced digital connectivity. Computers and Internet have become so embedded in the daily fabric of people’s lives... Sample PDF
Affective Computing
Chapter 4
Maribel-Isabel Sánchez-Segura
Although they are non-educational institutions, financial institutions have specific training needs. The greatest priority in employee training... Sample PDF
Analysis of Platforms for E-Learning
Chapter 5
Lori N.K. Leonard, Kiku Jones
Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) electronic commerce (ecommerce) is increasing as a means for individuals to buy and sell products (eMarketer, 2007). The... Sample PDF
Anthropologic Concepts in C2C in Virtual Communities
Chapter 6
Mark van ‘t Hooft, Graham Brown-Martin
We are increasingly mobile and connected. It is easier now than ever to access people or content using one of the many available wireless mobile... Sample PDF
Anywhere Anytime Learning with Wireless Mobile Devices
Chapter 7
Terry T. Kidd
Prior to computer technology, several studies have concluded that multiple senses engage the learner to the extent that a person remembers 20% of... Sample PDF
The Application of Sound and Auditory Responses in E-Learning
Chapter 8
Zoltán Czirkos
The importance of the network security problems comes into prominence by the growth of the Internet. This article introduces the basics of the host... Sample PDF
Application of the P2P Model for Adaptive Host Protection
Chapter 9
Lalita Rajasingham
The term HyperReality (HR) was coined by Nobuyoshi Terashima to refer to “the technological capability to intermix virtual reality (VR) with... Sample PDF
The Application of Virtual Reality and HyperReality Technologies to Universities
Chapter 10
Maode Ma
Recent development on the wireless networks has indicated that IEEE 802.11.x standards based wireless LAN and third-generation cellular wireless... Sample PDF
Architectures of the Interworking of 3G Cellular Networks and Wireless LANs
Chapter 11
Ephraim Nissan
In order to visualize argumentation, there exist tools from multimedia. The most advanced sides of computational modeling of arguments belong in... Sample PDF
Argument Structure Models and Visualization
Chapter 12
Waleed E. Farag
Multimedia applications are rapidly spread at an everincreasing rate, introducing a number of challenging problems at the hands of the research... Sample PDF
Assessing Digital Video Data Similarity
Chapter 13
Sherali Zeadally
Over the last few years, we have witnessed the emergence of many wireless systems and devices such as cellular phones, personal digital assistants... Sample PDF
Audio Streaming to IP-Enabled Bluetooth Devices
Chapter 14
Wolfgang Hürst
Today, classroom lectures are often based on electronic materials, such as slides that have been produced with presentation software tools and... Sample PDF
Automatic Lecture Recording for Lightweight Content Production
Chapter 15
Junaid Ahsenali Chaudhry
The networking technologies are moving very fast in pursuit of optimum performance, which has triggered the importance of non-conventional computing... Sample PDF
Automatic Self Healing Using Immune Systems
Chapter 16
Christian Kaspar, Florian Resatsch, Svenja Hagenhoff
Mobile radio technologies have seen a rapid growth in recent years. Sales numbers and market penetration of mobile handsets have reached new heights... Sample PDF
Basic Concepts of Mobile Radio Technologies
Chapter 17
Biometrics  (pages 121-127)
Richa Singh, Mayank Vatsa, Phalguni Gupta
The modern information age gives rise to various challenges, such as organization of society and its security. In the context of organization of... Sample PDF
Chapter 18
Blogs as Corporate Tools  (pages 128-133)
Michela Cortini
According to The Weblog Handbook (Blood, 2003), Weblogs, or blogs as they are usually called, are online and interactive diaries, very similar to... Sample PDF
Blogs as Corporate Tools
Chapter 19
Blogs in Education  (pages 134-139)
Shuyan Wang
Blogs have been sprouting like mushrooms after rain in the past few years because of their effectiveness in keeping contact with friends, family... Sample PDF
Blogs in Education
Chapter 20
Joe Tekli
W3C’s XML (eXtensible Mark-up Language) has recently gained unparalleled importance as a fundamental standard for efficient data management and... Sample PDF
Breakthroughs and Limitations of XML Grammar Similarity
Chapter 21
George Heliotis
We are currently witnessing an unprecedented growth in bandwidth demand, mainly driven by the development of advanced broadband multimedia... Sample PDF
Broadband Fiber Optical Access
Chapter 22
Mariana Hentea
In recent years, home networking has undergone significant changes due to the proliferation of technologies that support converging consumer... Sample PDF
Broadband Solutions for Residential Customers
Chapter 23
Saravanan Nathan Lurudusamy
Broadband is a term that describes the Internet as a function of high-speed data connections and large bandwidth. The Federation Communication... Sample PDF
Broadband Solutions for the Last Mile to Malaysian Residential Customers
Chapter 24
Shafiz Affendi Mohd Yusof
The explosive growth of the Internet has enabled virtual communities to engage in social activities such as meeting people, developing friendships... Sample PDF
Building Social Relationships in a Virtual Community of Gamers
Chapter 25
N. Raghavendra Rao
The existing ways of doing business are constantly changing. This is due to rapid changes in global economy. The opportunities in the present global... Sample PDF
Business Decisions through Mobile Computing
Chapter 26
Alexandru Tugui
The evolution of the human society over the last 50,000 years has been greatly influenced by technology. The last 200 years have brought about... Sample PDF
Calm Technologies as the Future Goal of Information Technologies
Chapter 27
Maria Belesioti
OTE S.A., General Directorate for Technology, Greece; OTE S.A., General Directorate for Technology, Greece; OTE S.A., General Directorate for... Sample PDF
Cell Broadcast as an Option for Emergency Warning Systems
Chapter 28
Calin Gurau
Advergames can be defined as online games that incorporate marketing content. Initially, many companies have placed their brands or logos in the... Sample PDF
Characteristics, Limitations, and Potential of Advergames
Chapter 29
Thomas M. Chen
The founding of the Bell Telephone System, the public switched telephone network (PSTN), has evolved into a highly successful global... Sample PDF
From Circuit Switched to IP-Based Networks
Chapter 30
Slava Kalyuga
In order to design effective and efficient multimedia applications, major characteristics of human cognition and its processing limitations should... Sample PDF
Cognitive Issues in Tailoring Multimedia Learning Technology to the Human Mind
Chapter 31
Community of Production  (pages 224-229)
Francesco Amoretti
There is no universal agreement regarding the meaning of the term “social software.” Clay Shirky, in his classic speech “A Group is its Own Worst... Sample PDF
Community of Production
Chapter 32
Brian Whitworth, Hokyoung Ryu
Over 30 years ago, TV shows from The Jetsons to Star Trek suggested that by the millennium’s end computers would read, talk, recognize, walk... Sample PDF
A Comparison of Human and Computer Information Processing
Chapter 33
Jonathan K. Lee
The growth in multimedia technology has revolutionized the way people interact with computer systems. From personal software to business systems and... Sample PDF
Conceptual, Methodological, and Ethical Challenges of Internet-Based Data Collection
Chapter 34
Madlen Boslau
The term RFID refers to radio frequency identification and describes transponders or tags that are attached to animate or inanimate objects and are... Sample PDF
Consumer Attitudes toward RFID Usage
Chapter 35
Jerald Hughes, Karl Reiner Lang
In 1999, exchanges of digital media objects, especially files of music, came to constitute a significant portion of Internet traffic, thanks to a... Sample PDF
Content Sharing Systems for Digital Media
Chapter 36
Chia-Hung Wei
In the past decade, there has been rapid growth in the use of digital media, such as images, video, and audio. As the use of digital media... Sample PDF
Content-Based Multimedia Retrieval
Chapter 37
Larbi Esmahi, Elarbi Badidi
The advancement in distributed and intelligent computing has facilitated the use of software agents for implementing e-services; most electronic... Sample PDF
Contract Negotiation in E-Marketplaces
Chapter 38
Klaus D. Hackbarth, Laura Rodríguez de Lope, Gabriele Kulenkampff
The European Regulatory Framework requires National Regulatory Authorities (NRAs) to conduct market analysis for a predefined set of markets that... Sample PDF
Cost Models for Bitstream Access Service
Chapter 39
In-Sook Jung
Since the inception of digital terrestrial TV (DTT) in the United Kingdom on September 23, 1998, many countries have developed keen interests in... Sample PDF
Critical Issues and Implications of Digital TV Transition
Chapter 40
Neil C. Rowe
Content repurposing is the reorganizing of data for presentation on different display hardware (Singh, 2004). It has been particularly important... Sample PDF
Critical Issues in Content Repurposing for Small Devices
Chapter 41
Cross-Channel Cooperation  (pages 299-304)
Tobias Kollmann
The rapid growth of Internet technologies induced a structural change in both social and economic spheres. Digital channels have become an integral... Sample PDF
Cross-Channel Cooperation
Chapter 42
H. Gunes Kayacik
Along with its numerous benefits, the Internet also created numerous ways to compromise the security and stability of the systems connected to it.... Sample PDF
Current Challenges in Intrusion Detection Systems
Chapter 43
Mahesh S. Raisinghani
People have become accustomed to changes in their environment with every new generation of technology. It is through the shift in technology that... Sample PDF
Current Impact and Future Trends of Mobile Devices and Mobile Applications
Chapter 44
Ralf Wagner
The majority of multimedia applications rely on hypermedia technologies, such as HTML, XML, or PHP (cf. Lang, 2005, for a review on design issues of... Sample PDF
Customizing Multimedia with Multi-Trees
Chapter 45
Ioannis Chochliouros, Anastasia S. Spiliopoulou, George K. Lalopoulos, Stergios P. Chochliouros
The world economy is currently moving in transition from the industrial age to a new set of rules, that of the so-called “Information Society,”... Sample PDF
Dark Optical Fiber Models for Broadband Networked Cities
Chapter 46
Joanna Lumsden
Mobile technology has been one of the major growth areas in computing over recent years (Urbaczewski, Valacich, & Jessup, 2003). Mobile devices are... Sample PDF
Design and Evaluation for the Future of m-Interaction
Chapter 47
Ioannis Chochliouros, Anastasia S. Spiliopoulou, Stergios P. Chochliouros
Over the past decades, the expansion of the converged Web-based facilities/infrastructures, together with new business perspectives, have created... Sample PDF
Developing Content Delivery Networks
Chapter 48
Stefano Tardini
The notion of community is pivotal in the sociological tradition. According to Nisbet (1966), “the most fundamental and far-reaching of sociology’s... Sample PDF
Development of IT and Virtual Communities
Chapter 49
Xin Luo, Merrill Warkentin
The continuous evolution of information security threats, coupled with increasing sophistication of malicious codes and the greater flexibility in... Sample PDF
Developments and Defenses of Malicious Code
Chapter 50
Digital Filters  (pages 364-372)
Gordana Jovanovic Dolecek
A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with changes of one or more independent variables, and each can be any physical value, such... Sample PDF
Digital Filters
Chapter 51
Samira Dias dos Reis
As new technologies continue to emerge, firms in diverse industries increasingly must respond. Future economic rents and competitive advantage rests... Sample PDF
Digital Television and Breakthrough Innovation
Chapter 52
Zbigniew Hulicki
Digital TV-based communication systems provide costeffective solutions and, in many cases, offer capabilities that are difficult to obtain by other... Sample PDF
Digital TV as a Tool to Create Multimedia Services Delivery Platform
Chapter 53
Ioannis Chochliouros, Anastasia S. Spiliopoulou, Stergios P. Chochliouros
Achieving widespread access by all European citizens to new services and advanced applications of the information society is one of the crucial... Sample PDF
Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) Evolution
Chapter 54
Kuanchin Chen
Sharing, disseminating, and presenting data in digital format is not just a fad, but it is becoming part of our life. Without careful planning... Sample PDF
Digital Watermarking and Steganography
Chapter 55
Distance Education  (pages 410-416)
Carol Wright
The term distance education is used to describe educational initiatives designed to compensate for and diminish distance in geography or distance in... Sample PDF
Distance Education
Chapter 56
Raymond Chiong
The rapid growth of information technology has opened up the possibilities of corporate learning and a completely new dimension to the progress in... Sample PDF
Distance Learning Concepts and Technologies
Chapter 57
Mi-kyung Kim
Since the late 1990s in Korea, there have been many users of mobile devices, and we have extended leisure time. The terrestrial broadcasting market... Sample PDF
DMB Market and Audience Attitude
Chapter 58
Juha Kettunen
The management of creative knowledge work presents great challenges in higher education, where individuals and information systems play a... Sample PDF
Dynamic Information Systems in Higher Education
Chapter 59
Michael O’Dea
Educational technology standards, or learning technology standards, as they are also known, have become an increasingly important area of multimedia... Sample PDF
Educational Technology Standards in Focus
Chapter 60
Éliane M.F. Moreau
Online learning, or e-learning, can be an interesting way of encouraging employees to collaborate in performing their work (Fichter, 2002). For... Sample PDF
Efficiency and Performance of Work Teams in Collaborative Online Learning
Chapter 61
Ioannis Chochliouros, Anastasia S. Spiliopoulou, Tilemachos D. Doukoglou, Stergios P. Chochliouros
In the context of the present work, we discuss several fundamental issues originating from the work already performed in the scope of the Discovery... Sample PDF
E-Learning Applications through Space Observations
Chapter 62
Tiong T. Goh, Kinshuk, Kinshuk
Content adaptation is defined as the process of selection, generation, or modification of content which include text, images, audio, video... Sample PDF
E-Learning Systems Content Adaptation Frameworks and Techniques
Chapter 63
Valerie Nesset
In today’s modern world, elementary school students (aged 5 to 12 years) use computers for a wide variety of tasks. These include communication... Sample PDF
Elementary School Students, Information Retrieval, and the Web
Chapter 64
Sumeet Gupta
Virtual communities (VCs) are places on the Web where people can find and then electronically ‘talk’ to others with similar interests. VCs primarily... Sample PDF
Enhancing E-Commerce through Sticky Virtual Communities
Chapter 65
Mário M. Freire, Paulo P. Monteiro, Henrique J.A. da Silva, José Ruela
Recently, Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (EPONs) have received a great amount of interest as a promising cost-effective solution for... Sample PDF
Ethernet Passive Optical Networks
Chapter 66
Koong Lin, Chad Lin, Chyi-Lin Shen
The popularity of interactive digital television (IDTV) has been increasing rapidly over the last few years and is likely to be the growth star of... Sample PDF
Evaluation of Interactive Digital TV Commerce Using the AHP Approach
Chapter 67
Antti Ainamo
Traditionally, design for industry transformed consumers’ and other product users’ everyday lives in one of two ways: “technology-push” or... Sample PDF
Evolution not Revolution in Next-Generation Wireless Telephony
Chapter 68
Ioannis Chochliouros, Anastasia S. Spiliopoulou, Stergios P. Chochliouros, Elpida Chochliourou
A variety of digital technologies can be used for effective implementation of access networks in fast growing (global) markets. The relative... Sample PDF
Evolution of DSL Technologies Over Copper Cabling
Chapter 69
Shuping Chen
As the basic 3G choice in China, TD-SCDMA has been widely accepted and adopted. The performance of China Communication Standard Association (CCSA)... Sample PDF
Evolution of TD-SCDMA Networks
Chapter 70
Shakil Akhtar
The fourth and fifth generation wireless mobile systems, commonly known as 4G and 5G, are expected to provide global roaming across different types... Sample PDF
Evolution of Technologies, Standards, and Deployment of 2G-5G Networks
Chapter 71
Louis K. Falk, Hy Sockel, Kuanchin Chen
Strictly speaking, the term Usability has evolved from ease of use to also include design and presentation aspects. A large amount of research has... Sample PDF
An Examination of Website Usability
Chapter 72
Sue E. Kase
In 1995, based on an earlier survey by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (USBLS), Boehm predicted that the number of end-users performing... Sample PDF
Experience Factors and Tool Use in End-User Web Development
Chapter 73
Neil C. Rowe
Captions are text that describes some other information; they are especially useful for describing nontext media objects (images, audio, video, and... Sample PDF
Exploiting Captions for Multimedia Data Mining
Chapter 74
Leo Tan Wee Hin, R. Subramaniam
Since the inception of the plain old telephone system (POTS) in the 1880s, it has formed the backbone of the communications world. Reliant on... Sample PDF
Extracting More Bandwidth Out of Twisted Pairs of Copper Wires
Chapter 75
Face for Interface  (pages 560-567)
Maja Pantic
The human face is involved in an impressive variety of different activities. It houses the majority of our sensory apparatus: eyes, ears, mouth, and... Sample PDF
Face for Interface
Chapter 76
Harith Indraratne, Gábor Hosszú
Current-day network applications require much more secure data storages than anticipated before. With millions of anonymous users using same... Sample PDF
Fine-Grained Data Access for Networking Applications
Chapter 77
Mihály Orosz
The IP-multicast transmission is the IP level answer for the growing one-to-many content spreading needs in multimedia applications (Hosszú, 2005).... Sample PDF
Global Address Allocation for Wide Area IP-Multicasting
Chapter 78
Going Virtual  (pages 581-586)
Evangelia Baralou, Jill Shepherd
Virtuality is a socially constructed reality mediated by electronic media (Morse, 1998). Virtuality has overcome the stage of being considered a... Sample PDF
Going Virtual
Chapter 79
Noureddine Kettaf, Hafid Abouaissa, Thang VuDuong
This article describes how resources are managed in MANETs (mobile ad hoc networks) so that quality of service (QoS) can be achieved to enable... Sample PDF
Guaranteeing Quality of Service in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
Chapter 80
Athanassios C. Iossifides, Spiros Louvros
Mobile broadband communications systems have already become a fact during the last few years. The evolution of 3G Universal Mobile... Sample PDF
High Speed Packet Access Broadband Mobile Communications
Chapter 81
Nicolas Jullien
Whatever its name, Free/Libre or Open Source Software (FLOSS), diffusion represents one of the main evolutions of the Information Technology (IT)... Sample PDF
A Historical Analysis of the Emergence of Free Cooperative Software Production
Chapter 82
Lawrence Harold Hardy
The computer has influenced the very fabric of modern society. As a stand-alone machine, it has proven itself a practical and highly efficient tool... Sample PDF
A History of Computer Networking Technology
Chapter 83
Kellie A. Shumack
Online learning promises much for the present and the future of education because it bridges the gap of distance and time (Valentine, 2002).... Sample PDF
Honest Communication in Online Learning
Chapter 84
Philip Kortum
Human factors assessment is a set of methods that are employed in order to determine if a product, service, or system meets the needs of the end... Sample PDF
Human Factors Assessment of Multimedia Products and Systems
Chapter 85
HyperReality  (pages 631-640)
Nobuyoshi Terashima
On the Internet, a cyberspace is created where people communicate together, usually by using textual messages. Therefore, they cannot see each other... Sample PDF
Chapter 86
Hypervideo  (pages 641-647)
Kai Richter
Hypervideo is the adaptation of the hypertext metaphor to video. By annotating and referencing video objects, diverse media, and pieces of... Sample PDF
Chapter 87
Paul Cleary
The rapid pace of international growth in Internet use is putting enormous pressure on nations to acquire Internet technology in order to compete in... Sample PDF
The Impact of Broadband on Education in the USA
Chapter 88
Indranil Bose
Today, Internet technologies have pervaded every corner of our society. More and more people are benefiting from the Internet in one way or the... Sample PDF
Implementation of Quality of Service in VoIP
Chapter 89
Marlyn Kemper Littman
Unprecedented demand for ultrafast and dependable access to computing Grids contributes to the accelerating use of dense wavelength division... Sample PDF
Implementing DWDM Lambda-Grids
Chapter 90
Thomas M. Chen
It is easy to find news reports of incidents where an organization’s security has been compromised. For example, a laptop was lost or stolen, or a... Sample PDF
Information Security and Risk Management
Chapter 91
Mariana Hentea
Information assurance is a continuous crisis in the digital world. The attackers are winning and efforts to create and maintain a secure environment... Sample PDF
Information Security Management
Chapter 92
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
Like other information systems in banking and commercial companies, information security is also an important issue in the health care industry. It... Sample PDF
Information Security Management in Picture Archiving and Communication Systems for the Healthcare Industry
Chapter 93
Sumeet Gupta
While Internet has opened a whole new world of opportunity for interaction and business by removing many trade barriers, it has also opened up new... Sample PDF
Information Security Threats to Network Based Information Systems
Chapter 94
Juha Kettunen
Enterprises are facing challenges in protecting their intellectual property (IP) due to the rapid technological changes, shortened lifecycles, and... Sample PDF
Intellectual Property Protection in Software Enterprises
Chapter 95
Sheng-Uei Guan
A good business to consumer environment can be developed through the creation of intelligent software agents (Guan, Zhi, & Maung, 2004; Soltysiak &... Sample PDF
Intelligent Personalization Agent for Product Brokering
Chapter 96
Kirk St. Amant
Communication technologies are continually changing ideas of the “office.” One of the most interesting of these developments is the virtual office—a... Sample PDF
Interacting Effectively in International Virtual Offices
Chapter 97
Kamel Karoui
With the interconnection of computers in networks, particularly through the Internet, it becomes possible to connect applications on distant... Sample PDF
Interaction between Mobile Agents and Web Services
Chapter 98
Margherita Pagani
Interactive television (iTV) can be defined as the result of the process of convergence between television and the new interactive digital... Sample PDF
Interactive Digital Television
Chapter 99
Hakikur Rahman
With the extended application of information technologies, the conventional education system has crossed the physical boundaries to reach the... Sample PDF
Interactive Multimedia Technologies for Distance Education in Developing Countries
Chapter 100
Hakikur Rahman
Information is typically stored, manipulated, delivered, and retrieved using a plethora of existing and emerging technologies. Businesses and... Sample PDF
Interactive Multimedia Technologies for Distance Education Systems
Chapter 101
Samuel Rivas, Miguel Barreiro, Víctor M. Gulías
Even though digital systems have many advantages over traditional analogue systems, end users expect that they will not loose any functionality in... Sample PDF
Interactive Playout of Digital Video Streams
Chapter 102
Alcina Prata
Television was a brilliant invention because it is capable of transporting us anywhere (Perera, 2002). Since its first production, in 1928, it never... Sample PDF
Interactive Television Evolution
Chapter 103
Alcina Prata
There is no doubt that interactive TV (iTV), which may be defined as a TV system that allows the viewer to interact with an application that is... Sample PDF
Interactive Television Research Opportunities
Chapter 104
David Mazursky
In recent years the online Web site interface format was found to have significant effects on attitudes toward the store and people’s actual... Sample PDF
Interface-Based Differences in Online Decision Making
Chapter 105
Violeta Tomaševic, Goran Pantelic, Slobodan Bojanic
Originally developed for research and education purposes as Arpanet in 1970s, the Internet has become a worldwide network that offers numerous... Sample PDF
Internet and E-Business Security
Chapter 106
John M. Carroll
Case-based learning is one of the major pedagogical approaches applied in formal and informal teaching and learning. This article introduces an... Sample PDF
Introducing Digital Case Library
Chapter 107
Terry T. Kidd
The waves of technology are changing the workplace and the worker of today as we approach the 21st century. To be prepared, people need to be... Sample PDF
Investing in Multimedia Agents for E-Learning Solutions
Chapter 108
James O. Danenberg
E-learning (a major subcomponent of the broader term “distance learning”) is one of the tools with which education can be delivered at a distance... Sample PDF
Issue and Practices of Electronic Learning
Chapter 109
Richard Millham
What are some of the issues relevant to distance education in sub-Saharan Africa? Some of these issues relate to the ‘push’ factors of distance... Sample PDF
Issues with Distance Education in Sub-Saharan Africa
Chapter 110
Theekshana Suraweera
Computer-based information systems have grown in importance to SMEs, and are now being used increasingly to help them compete. For example, many... Sample PDF
IT Management in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises
Chapter 111
Pauline Ratnasingam
With the explosion of the Internet and Web technologies as a medium of exchange, issues such as knowledge coordination problems, knowledge transfer... Sample PDF
Knowledge Management and Information Technology Security Services
Chapter 112
Percy Kwok
Because of the ever changing nature of work and society under knowledge-based economy in the 21st century, students and teachers need to develop... Sample PDF
Knowledge-Building through Collaborative Web-Based Learning Community or Ecology in Education
Chapter 113
Sumeet Gupta
Since the 1990s, a surge in the popularity and usage of e-commerce has led to the recent emergence of conducting business transactions using... Sample PDF
Latest Trends in Mobile Business
Chapter 114
Leading Virtual Teams  (pages 835-841)
Dan Novak, Mihai C. Bocarnea
New forms of organizations, such as virtual teams who primarily conduct their work through electronic media, are becoming more common. With the... Sample PDF
Leading Virtual Teams
Chapter 115
Gunilla Widén-Wulff
The Library 2.0 is a continuation of the development of digital libraries and user oriented digital information services such as MyLibrary. The 2.0... Sample PDF
Library 2.0 as a New Participatory Context
Chapter 116
Joanna Berry
The introduction of the Internet and its rapid expansion in the 90s, coupled with technological advances in software and hardware, allowed the... Sample PDF
Live Music and Performances in a Virtual World
Chapter 117
Anastasia S. Spiliopoulou, Ioannis Chochliouros, George K. Lalopoulos, Stergios P. Chochliouros
Recent European policies have very early identified (European Commission, 1999) the immense challenge for the European Union (EU) to promote various... Sample PDF
Local Loop Unbundling (LLU) Policies in the European Framework
Chapter 118
Mahesh S. Raisinghani, Hassan Ghanem
A form of fiber-optic communication delivery in which an optical fiber is run directly onto the customers’ premises is called Fiber to the Premises... Sample PDF
A Managerial Analysis of Fiber Optic Communications
Chapter 119
Luigi Proserpio
Interview with Anthony Davidson, SuperAguri F1 GP Driver (autosport.com, March 2, 2007): Q: Can you actually learn anything from the [F1 videogame]... Sample PDF
Managerial Computer Business Games
Chapter 120
Martin Meißner, Sören W. Scholz, Ralf Wagner
Marketing research is the process of systematically gathering, analyzing, and interpreting data pertaining to the company’s market, customers, and... Sample PDF
Marketing Research Using Multimedia Technologies
Chapter 121
Mario A. Maggioni, Mike Thelwall, Teodora Erika Uberti
The Internet is one of the newest and most powerful media that enables the transmission of digital information and communication across the world... Sample PDF
Measuring and Mapping the World Wide Web through Web Hyperlinks
Chapter 122
Peter J. Natale
Contemporary organizations are drastically changing, in large part due to the development and application of newer communication technologies and... Sample PDF
Media Channel Preferences of Mobile Communities
Chapter 123
Darko Galinec, Slavko Vidovic
For integration of two business functions or two business systems it is necessary to connect their business processes with application support and... Sample PDF
Methodological Framework and Application Integration Services in Enterprise Information Systems
Chapter 124
Stefano Pace
The Internet has developed from an informative medium to a social environment where people meet together, exchange messages and emotions, and... Sample PDF
Methods and Issues for Research in Virtual Communities
Chapter 125
Ioannis Chochliouros, Anastasia S. Spiliopoulou, Stergios P. Chochliouros
Dependability and security are rigorously related concepts that, however, differ for the specific proprieties they mainly concentrate on. In... Sample PDF
Methods for Dependability and Security Analysis of Large Networks
Chapter 126
Sheng-Uei Guan
With the increasing usage of the Internet, electronic commerce (e-commerce) has been catching on fast in a lot of business areas. As e-commerce... Sample PDF
Mobile Agent Authentication and Authorization
Chapter 127
Gundars Kaupins
This article summarizes the present and potential legal constraints of mobile computing and commerce and provides company policy suggestions... Sample PDF
Mobile Computing and Commerce Legal Implications
Chapter 128
Lin Hui, Ye Lei
The birth of mobile geographic information service (GIS) is introduced first, which is coming from the value-added service requirements in third... Sample PDF
Mobile Geographic Information Services
Chapter 129
Subhankar Dhar
In recent years, Web services have gained popularity in terms of applications and usage. A copious volume of literature has been published that... Sample PDF
Mobile Web Services for Mobile Commerce
Chapter 130
Shiguo Lian
Since the beginning of 1990s, some multimedia standards (Joan, Didier, & Chad, 2003) related to image compression, video compression, or audio... Sample PDF
Multimedia Content Protection Technology
Chapter 131
Janusz Swierzowicz
The development of information technology is particularly noticeable in the methods and techniques of data acquisition. Data can be stored in many... Sample PDF
Multimedia Data Mining Trends and Challenges
Chapter 132
Multimedia Encryption  (pages 972-977)
Shujun Li
Multimedia technology becomes more and more popular in today’s digitized and networked world. Many multimedia-based services, such as pay-TV, remote... Sample PDF
Multimedia Encryption
Chapter 133
Ralf Wagner, Martin Meißner
Multimedia technologies provide direct marketers with an incredible diversity of opportunities for communication to as well as with customers in a... Sample PDF
Multimedia for Direct Marketing
Chapter 134
Qing Li, Yi Zhuang, Jun Yang, Yueting Zhuang
From late 1990s to early 2000s, the availability of powerful computing capability, large storage devices, high-speed networking, and especially the... Sample PDF
Multimedia Information Retrieval at a Crossroad
Chapter 135
Multimedia Representation  (pages 995-1007)
Bo Yang
In recent years, the rapid expansion of multimedia applications, partly due to the exponential growth of the Internet, has proliferated over the... Sample PDF
Multimedia Representation
Chapter 136
Momouh Khadraoui, Béat Hirsbrunner, D. Khadraoui, F. Meinköhn
Forms of broadcast media, such as TV and radio, are considered passive because the consumer simply receives the message and does not choose whether... Sample PDF
Multimedia Standards for iTV Technology
Chapter 137
Armando Cirrincione
Multimedia technologies (MMT) are tools that make it possible to transmit information in a very large meaning, transforming them into knowledge... Sample PDF
Multimedia Technologies in Education
Chapter 138
Samuel Rivas, Miguel Barreiro, Víctor M. Gulías
Multiplexing is the process of combining several independent signals to build another one from which it is possible to recover any of the original... Sample PDF
Multiplexing Digital Multimedia Data
Chapter 139
Edward Dieterle
In the late 1970s, Richard Bartle and Roy Trubshaw of the University of Essex developed the first MUD (multi-user dungeon/domain/dimension... Sample PDF
Multi-User Virtual Environments for Teaching and Learning
Chapter 140
Peter Murphy
What does the space created by the Internet look like? One answer to this question is to say that, because this space exists “virtually,” it cannot... Sample PDF
The N-Dimensional Geometry and Kinaesthetic Space of the Internet
Chapter 141
Hakikur Rahman
For many reasons, the establishment of technology is crucial to socio-economic development, as well as increasing democratization of a nation. The... Sample PDF
Network Deployment for Social Benefits in Developing Countries
Chapter 142
Jo-Mae B. Maris
Cross-discipline research requires researchers to understand many concepts outside their own discipline. Computing has increased in our everyday... Sample PDF
Network-Based Information System Model for Research
Chapter 143
Guy Wood-Bradley
The relative infancy of digital television technology (and as a correlative, iTV, or, interactive television) in Australia offers an excellent... Sample PDF
A New Framework for Interactive Entertainment Technologies
Chapter 144
David Lebow, Dale Lick, Hope Hartman
In an essay entitled, The Next Information Revolution, Peter Drucker (1997) compared the existing business environment to conditions in the... Sample PDF
New Technology for Empowering Virtual Communities
Chapter 145
Abhijit Roy
Technology has enabled communities to move beyond the physical face-to-face contacts to the online realm of the World Wide Web. With the advent of... Sample PDF
Online Communities and Social Networking
Chapter 146
Elizabeth Koh
Online education is growing rapidly. Online education is a Web-based form of education where students gain access to online materials and... Sample PDF
Online Education and Cultural Background
Chapter 147
Online Privacy Issues  (pages 1086-1092)
Hy Sockel, Kuanchin Chen, Louis K. Falk
Businesses need to understand privacy conditions and implications to ensure that they are in compliance with legal constraints and do not step on... Sample PDF
Online Privacy Issues
Chapter 148
Ontology and Multimedia  (pages 1093-1099)
Roberto Poli, Achilles Kameas, Lambrini Seremeti
Audiovisual resources in the form of still pictures, graphical, 3D models, audio, speech, and video play an increasing pervasive role in our lives... Sample PDF
Ontology and Multimedia
Chapter 149
Colin Tattersall
Significant investments have been made by universities, colleges, distance learning providers, and corporate training departments in the area of... Sample PDF
An Open E-Learning Specification for Multiple Learners and Flexible Pedagogies
Chapter 150
Emmanuel Udoh
The free or open source software (OSS) movement, pioneered by Richard Stallman in 1983, is gaining mainstream acceptance and challenging the... Sample PDF
Open Source Database Technologies
Chapter 151
Ioannis Chochliouros, Anastasia S. Spiliopoulou, Stergios P. Chochliouros, George Agapiou
The tremendous growth in the mobile communications sector has had a profound technical, economic/business, and social impact in Europe and worldwide... Sample PDF
Opportunities and Challenges from Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA) Technology
Chapter 152
Joel J.P.C. Rodrigues, Mário M. Freire, Paulo P. Monteiro, Pascal Lorenz
The concept of burst switching was initially proposed in the context of voice communications by Haselton (1983) and Amstutz (1983, 1989) in the... Sample PDF
Optical Burst Switch as a New Switching Paradigm for High-Speed Internet
Chapter 153
Darren P. Mundy, Oleksandr Otenko
Public key infrastructures (PKI) are now in place in a number of organizations and there is a vast amount of material available that can be used to... Sample PDF
An Overview of Privilege Management Infrastructure (PMI)
Chapter 154
Peer-to-Peer Usage Analysis  (pages 1136-1141)
Florent Masseglia, Pascal Poncelet, Maguelonne Teisseire
With the huge number of information sources available on the Internet and the high dynamics of their data, peer-to-peer (P2P) systems propose a... Sample PDF
Peer-to-Peer Usage Analysis
Chapter 155
George Lekakos, Konstantinos Chorianopoulos
The ability to deliver personalized advertising messages has long been a major objective in marketing since it allows marketers to meet... Sample PDF
Personalized Advertising Methods in Digital Interactive Television
Chapter 156
Maria R. Lee
The number of cellular phone subscribers has reached a total of 5.6 million in Taiwan (NCC, 2007). Meanwhile, Internet users have reached a total of... Sample PDF
The Perspectives of Message-Based Service in Taiwan
Chapter 157
Anxo Cereijo Roibás, Stephen Johnson
This article presents a research project carried out at the BT Mobility Research Center with the aim of developing appropriate applications for... Sample PDF
Pervasive iTV and Creative Networked Multimedia Systems
Chapter 158
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
For the past 100 years, film has been almost the exclusive medium for capturing, storing, and displaying radiographic images. Film is a fixed medium... Sample PDF
Picture Archiving and Communication System for Public Healthcare
Chapter 159
Kenneth J. Turner
This article discusses the use of policies to control calls—whether in traditional telephony or in its more modern versions such as mobile telephony... Sample PDF
Policy-Based Management for Call Control
Chapter 160
Spiros Louvros, Athanassios C. Iossifides
The role of transmission network design is diverse. Basically, it includes the preparation of transmission solutions for access and core (backbone)... Sample PDF
Polymer Optical Fibers (POF) Applications for Indoor Cell Coverage Transmission Infrastructure
Chapter 161
Privacy Risk in E-Commerce  (pages 1188-1193)
Tziporah Stern
Privacy, or the right to hold information about oneself in secret (Masuda, 1979; O’Brien & Yasnof, 1999), has become increasingly important in the... Sample PDF
Privacy Risk in E-Commerce
Chapter 162
Peter Murphy
The development of the “World Wide Web” has had a significant impact on the formation of public opinion in democratic societies. This impact... Sample PDF
Public Opinion and the Internet
Chapter 163
Ivy Tan, Ravi Chandran
Rapid e-learning (REL) is a phrase in common use since 2003. This article defines REL, describes types of REL authoring tools, discusses management... Sample PDF
Rapid E-Learning in the University
Chapter 164
Laurence Mukankusi, Jared Keengwe, Yao Amewokunu, Assion Lawson-Body
Information technology (IT) investments are justified based on average improvement in performance (Peacock & Tanniru, 2005). Firms rely on those... Sample PDF
Relationships between Wireless Technology Investment and Organizational Performance
Chapter 165
Gábor Hosszú
The multimedia applications generally support one-tomany group communication. Multicasting decreases the communication costs for applications, which... Sample PDF
Reliability Issues of the Multicast-Based Mediacommunication
Chapter 166
Sunand Bhattacharya, Jeremy Dunning, Abtar Kaur, David Daniels
Web-based distance learning is hampered in many cases by a failure to deliver material in a manner consistent with the ways in which students learn... Sample PDF
Re-Purposeable Learning Objects Based on Teaching and Learning Styles
Chapter 167
Christian Kaspar
Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a radio-supported identification technology that typically operates by saving a serial number on a radio... Sample PDF
RFID Technologies and Applications
Chapter 168
Stan Ruecker
Everyone who has browsed the Internet is familiar with the problems involved in finding what they want. From the novice to the most sophisticated... Sample PDF
Rich-Prospect Browsing Interfaces
Chapter 169
Lech Janczewski
Developments in multimedia technology and in networking offer to organizations new and more effective ways of conducting their businesses. That... Sample PDF
Road Map to Information Security Management
Chapter 170
Sören W. Scholz, Ralf Wagner
The term environmental scanning (ES) refers to the way in which managers study their relevant business environment. More precisely, we define ES as... Sample PDF
Scanning Multimedia Business Environments
Chapter 171
Dilvan de Abreu Moreira, Elaine Quintino da Silva
In the last few years, education has been going through an important change: the introduction of information technology in the educational process.... Sample PDF
A Second Look at Improving Student Interaction with Internet and Peer Review
Chapter 172
Pauline Ratnasingam
The increasing trend in the use of Internet-based emarketplace applications has created tremendous opportunities for businesses to manage effective... Sample PDF
A Security Framework for E-Marketplace Participation
Chapter 173
Volker Hockmann, Heinz D. Knoell, Ernst L. Leiss
Web servers and the Web services associated with them have become increasingly important in the last few years. Online banking, e-mail, and money... Sample PDF
Security of Web Servers and Web Services
Chapter 174
Semantic Web Services  (pages 1293-1298)
Juan Manuel Adán-Coello
Service-oriented computing (SOC) is a new computing paradigm that uses services as building blocks to accelerate the development of distributed... Sample PDF
Semantic Web Services
Chapter 175
Chi Po Cheong
Credit card is the most popular payment method used in Internet shopping. The idea of credit card payment is to buy first and pay later. The... Sample PDF
A Simple and Secure Credit Card-Based Payment System
Chapter 176
Gábor Hosszú
Internet streaming media changed the Web from a static medium into a multimedia platform, which supports audio and video content delivery. In our... Sample PDF
Simulation-Based Comparison of TCP and TCP-Friendly Protocols
Chapter 177
Social Networking  (pages 1316-1326)
Kevin Curran
It is in man’s nature to form communities, and it is also in his nature to communicate. Psychologists hold that man is moved by instincts, desires... Sample PDF
Social Networking
Chapter 178
Jürgen Dorn
Social software is a class of information systems supporting the establishment and management of online communities for people in performing certain... Sample PDF
Social Software (and Web 2.0)
Chapter 179
Ramanjit Singh
Wikipedia is a free encyclopedia that operates worldwide on the Internet. Articles on Wikipedia are developed with close collaboration of volunteers... Sample PDF
Sociocultural Implications of Wikipedia
Chapter 180
Kevin Curran
Spam in the computer does not simply mean ads. Spam is any message, article, or ad that repeats itself an unacceptable number of times so that it... Sample PDF
SPIT: Spam Over Internet Telephony
Chapter 181
Omar El-Gayar, Kuanchin Chen
This chapter provides a brief overview of Web interactivity. It highlights current research findings on interactivity from several academic... Sample PDF
Status and Future Trends of Multimedia Interactivity on the Web
Chapter 182
Evangelia M. Georgiadou, Ioannis Chochliouros, George Heliotis, Maria Belesioti
As the technological scene of the 21st century changes rapidly, new facts for telecom and networks are coming to the front. Users’ growing demands... Sample PDF
Strategies for Next Generation Networks Architectures
Chapter 183
Timothy Teo, Jan Noyes
In the developed world, multimedia technologies, networks, and online services continue to pervade our everyday lives. Alongside the advancements in... Sample PDF
Teachers' Use of Information and Communications Technology (ICT)
Chapter 184
Hyo-Jeong So, Bosung Kim
For the past decade, handheld devices with mobile and wireless capabilities have emerged as the next promising generation of technology for teaching... Sample PDF
Teaching and Learning with Mobile Technologies
Chapter 185
Vasja Vehovar
Surveys—data collection based on standardized questionnaires— started with censuses thousands of years ago. However, it was only in the 1930s... Sample PDF
The Technological Revolution in Survey Data Collection
Chapter 186
Teletranslation  (pages 1379-1386)
Minako O’Hagan
Translation as a form of language mediation is called upon to convert the source text written in one natural language into the target text in... Sample PDF
Chapter 187
Loreen Marie Powell
The advancements of technology have altered the way many small businesses operate in the United States of America (USA) (Butcher-Powell, 2006).... Sample PDF
Teleworker's Security Risks Minimized with Informal Online Information Technology Communities of Practice
Chapter 188
Geraldine Torrisi-Steele
The notion of using technology for educational purposes is not new. In fact, it can be traced back to the early 1900s during which time school... Sample PDF
Theoretical Foundations for Educational Multimedia
Chapter 189
Amy Sze Hui Eow, Jiayu Guo, Sheng-Uei Guan
Near field communication (NFC) is a new wireless connectivity technology that enables short-range communication between electronic devices. The... Sample PDF
Tourist Applications Made Easier Using Near Field Communication
Chapter 190
Tanko Ishaya
Developments in the Internet and the World Wide Web (WWW) technologies have led to an evolving trend in Electronic learning (e-learning). E-learning... Sample PDF
Towards Management of Interoperable Learning Objects
Chapter 191
Spiros Louvros
The last two decades, after the telecommunication and computer technology convergence, the world of telecommunication applications has changed... Sample PDF
Towards Unified Services in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks Based on Soft-Switch Platform
Chapter 192
Ephrem Eyob
Telecommunications and networking, two prominent technologies of the information age, have enjoyed substantial investments from industry and... Sample PDF
Trends in Telecommunications and Networking in Secure E-Commerce Applications
Chapter 193
Ubiquitous Commerce  (pages 1430-1435)
Holtjona Galanxhi-Janaqi
Ubiquitous commerce, also referred to as “u-commerce” or “über-commerce,” is the combination of electronic, wireless/mobile, television, voice, and... Sample PDF
Ubiquitous Commerce
Chapter 194
Gaye Lightbody
The higher education environment is changing driven by the needs of its students, evolving into a combination of different approaches (blended... Sample PDF
Ubiquitous Mobile Learning in Higher Education
Chapter 195
Sabira Khatun, Rashid A. Saeed, Nor Kamariah Nordin, Borhanuddin Mohd Ali
Ultra-wideband (UWB) is an alternative wireless communications technology that offers high bandwidth wireless communications without the constraints... Sample PDF
Ultra-Wideband Solutions for Last Mile Access Network
Chapter 196
Calin Gurau
Electronic commerce requires the redefinition of the firm’s relationships with partners, suppliers, and customers. The goal of effective customer... Sample PDF
UML as an Essential Tool for Implementing eCRM Systems
Chapter 197
Carlos Varela
Presently, there are three main ESG systems used in DVB-H (DVB, 2004) systems : 1. CBMS (DVB, 2006), promoted by the digital video broadcasting... Sample PDF
Unified Architecture for DVB-H Electronic Service Guide
Chapter 198
Unified KS-Code  (pages 1473-1479)
M. K.A. Abdullah, S. A. Aljunid, M. D.A. Samad, S. B.A. Anas, R. K.Z. Sahbudin
Many codes have been proposed for optical CDMA system as discussed in Svetislav, Mari, Zoran, Kosti, and Titlebaum (1993), Salehi (1989), Liu and... Sample PDF
Unified KS-Code
Chapter 199
Kuanchin Chen, Hy Sockel, Louis K. Falk
Usability is an acknowledged important aspect of any system or product design. Many times it is related to not only product features, but also... Sample PDF
Usability in Mobile Computing and Commerce
Chapter 200
Christophe Cruz
Computer graphics have widely spread out into various computer applications. After the early wire-frame computer generated images of the 1960s... Sample PDF
Use of Semantics to Manage 3D Scenes in Web Platforms
Chapter 201
John Fulcher
Much has changed in computer interfacing since the early days of computing—or has it? Admittedly, gone are the days of punched cards and/or paper... Sample PDF
User Interface Issues in Multimedia
Chapter 202
Norhayati Zakaria
Many multinational companies (MNCs) have inevitably assembled and employed global virtual teams (GVTs) to leverage their work performance. GVTs are... Sample PDF
Using Computer Mediated Communication as a Tool to Facilitate Intercultural Collaboration of Global Virtual Teams
Chapter 203
Video Ontology  (pages 1506-1511)
Jeongkyu Lee
There has been a great deal of interest in the development of ontology to facilitate knowledge sharing and database integration. In general... Sample PDF
Video Ontology
Chapter 204
Virtual Communities  (pages 1512-1519)
George Kontolemakis
In recent years, computer-mediated communication has been the enabling factor for connecting people to one another and establishing “virtual... Sample PDF
Virtual Communities
Chapter 205
Jamie S. Switzer
This article will focus on the characteristics of a technology- supported virtual community where university students can seek the guidance of... Sample PDF
Virtual Community Mentoring in Higher Education
Chapter 206
The Virtual Public Sphere  (pages 1525-1530)
Robert A. Cropf
The public sphere does not exist and operate in the same way everywhere. Every country is different with regard to its own economic, social... Sample PDF
The Virtual Public Sphere
Chapter 207
Virtual Reality in Medicine  (pages 1531-1536)
Michelle LaBrunda, Andrew LaBrunda
Virtual reality is a collection of technologies that enable people to use their senses to experience sensory input provided from a source other than... Sample PDF
Virtual Reality in Medicine
Chapter 208
August-Wilhelm Scheer
The emergence of what we call today the World Wide Web, the WWW, or simply the Web, dates back to 1989 when Tim Berners-Lee proposed a hypertext... Sample PDF
Web 2.0 and Beyond-Participation Culture on the Web
Chapter 209
Web Design Concept  (pages 1545-1550)
Ginger Rosenkrans
In 2005, the Internet became available to one billion people worldwide with about 845 million people using it regularly (Emarketer, 2006). The... Sample PDF
Web Design Concept
Chapter 210
Murali Raman
This article presents the use of Wiki technology to support knowledge management efforts in an organizational setting. We begin by providing some... Sample PDF
Wiki Technology as a Knowledge Management System
Chapter 211
WLAN Security Management  (pages 1558-1572)
Göran Pulkkis
In a wired local area network (LAN), the network ports and cables are mostly contained inside a building. Therefore, a hacker must defeat physical... Sample PDF
WLAN Security Management
Chapter 212
Kevin Curran
A podcast is a Web feed containing audio or video files which is then placed on the Internet for anyone to download. What makes the podcast distinct... Sample PDF
The World of Podcasting, Screencasting, Blogging, and Videoblogging
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