Information systems developers make use of information technology resources. IT resources might include, for example, tools like editors, compilers, linkers and debuggers (usually now integrated into development environment software) the languages in which knowledge may be represented (programming or knowledge representation (KR) languages), protocols for inter-program communication (which includes file protocols for various purposes), and building blocks such as ready-made algorithms and libraries of software. Whereas ISD is concerned with specific types of application, IT resources and tools aspire to be valid regardless of type of application.
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