At first, it is necessary to measure physical and intellectual function objectively to support independence of the elders who need care in daily life, and to analyze the reason why the elders cannot move or take action, and why the barrier occurs. An effective use of a survival or a substituted function and also the improvement of physical environment, such as housing accommodation in private and public sectors require for removing barriers. Besides, social resources are useful to support independence of the elders in their daily lives. In this chapter, two issues was focused, functional characteristics which change in accordance with the increase of age, and the methods of removing barriers for elders to move as they like.
Key Terms in this Chapter
Social Resources: In welfare services, social resources are indispensable and have to be easy to use for elders who need care or for their families.
Independence in Daily Life.: Independence in daily life means the condition in which a person with a disorder can live according to his or her own will (influenced by needs and belief).
ICF: ICF was defined by WHO (World Health Organization) in 2001. This classification is the revised version of ICIDH (International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps), which was composed from a viewpoint of disorder. In the ICF model, human behavior was classified into three categories (body functions and structures, activities, and participation).
Activity of Daily Living (ADL).: ADL consists of seven kinds of body actions, and there is IADL (Instrumental ADL), which is another classification of activities in daily life. IADL is composed of activities requiring intellectual ability, such as money management, telephone calls, housework (shopping, meal preparation, cleaning).
Seven (Ability) Factors: Details of “seven factors” proposed by Thurstone and Thurstone (1941) are as follows: Memory—the ability to memorize and recall; Number—the ability to solve arithmetic problems; Perception—the ability to see differences and similarities among objects; Reasoning—the ability to find rules; Word fluency—the ability to produce words rapidly; Space—the ability to visualize relationships; and Verbal comprehension—the ability to define and understand words.
Survival and Substituted Function: A survival function is a function that has been left a little after disease, and it can be used effectively with some jig or self-help device. A substituted function has a supplementary roll for the function with disorder, such as an auditory function in the blind.