Fuzzy Mediation in Shared Control and Online Learning

Fuzzy Mediation in Shared Control and Online Learning

Giovanni Vincenti (Towson University, USA) and Goran Trajkovski (Algoco eLearning, USA)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 23
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-576-4.ch016
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Abstract

This chapter presents an innovative approach to the field of information fusion. Fuzzy mediation differentiates itself from other algorithms, as this approach is dynamic in nature. The experiments reported in this work analyze the interaction of two distinct controllers as they try to maneuver an artificial agent through a path. Fuzzy mediation functions as a fusion engine to integrate the two inputs to produce a single output. Results show that fuzzy mediation is a valid method to mediate between two distinct controllers. The work reported in this chapter lays the foundation for the creation of an effective tool that uses positive feedback systems instead of negative ones to train human and nonhuman agents in the performance of control tasks.
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Introduction

Technology plays a dominant role as each new product is designed and placed on the market. When a technological solution oversees the cooking of rice, for example, one may or may not require much improvement. But, when we implement solutions that control a passenger jetliner, we need to be sure that the concepts and solutions are well founded.

The fly-by-wire airplane idea is similar to the one of an automobile that operates with little input from the driver, or a joystick-operated heavy-duty machine that lifts heavy loads. What these three examples have in common is the existence of mediation between signals from the operators and the actual sequence of actions taken by the machine in response to the operator. Sometimes, the response of the machine depends on the operator’s input; there are, however, times when the controls are autonomous responses to situations at hand.

Who (and when) should have control over the machine: the human or the automatic operator? Should we share control, and if so, how? Norman (2005) points out that what we understand as shared control is not really shared. For example, in early stages of development, the machine used to supervise and control any part of the operations in fly-by-wire airplanes, and now they oversee operations and still control flight. But, when the conditions don’t meet the standards of operations, the pilot is left alone. Therefore, it is either the pilot controlling the plane on his/her own, or the control system. There is no interaction between the two.

We need a system that allows for greater interaction between the human operator and the digital one. There are examples (e.g., Caterpillar machines) that allow operators to perform certain tasks only through automated systems (Grenoble O’Malley, 2005). Also, the two major airliner producers, Airbus and Boeing, are gearing toward advanced fly-by-wire technologies (Wallace, 2000), as the auto industry is attempting to infuse automation concepts in their products (Norman, 2005). These important initiatives stress that automation is becoming a predominant part of our everyday life. It is important, though, to realize that there is a need of some type of balance between controllers, humans, computers, or hybrids.As the interaction between machines and digital controllers increases, we need to:

  • 1.

    Find a better way to mediate control in dual control systems, when two (or more) operators are controlling the same machine;

  • 2.

    Then, replace one of the human operators with a digital one and investigate the interaction between the two entities using a mediation system (such as the one introduced in this chapter). This can be done if we:

  • 3.

    Create a framework for using simulation and virtual reality to test-drive solutions; and

  • 4.

    Implement these systems as a part of the actual operations of the machines under scrutiny.

This chapter will review some of the current problems in this “new” Information Fusion problem area, which extends the classic, static and traditional approaches to add a dynamic component that we call Fuzzy Mediation.

This chapter is organized as follows. First, we give background information about Information Fusion, as well as other preliminary concepts relevant to the framework for Fuzzy Mediation. Then, we introduce our original concept of Fuzzy Mediation as a theoretical solution to shortcomings highlighted. Next, we give a detailed overview of our algorithm and a breakdown of the three functional units that create it, and report on our conceptual experiments. Then, we introduce our application of Fuzzy Mediation to a robotic line follower simulation and discuss other problem fields that may implement this algorithm. Finally, we conclude the chapter.

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Preliminaries

In this section, we overview preliminary concepts needed to follow the rest of the chapter.

Control is a concept that involves the interaction of multiple entities (by definition at least two). In a situation of control, one of the subjects is identified as the one who interacts directly with one object, that is, directing the object’s every move (WordNET, n.a.).

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Table of Contents
Preface
Dariusz Król, Ngoc Thanh Nguyen
Chapter 1
Juliusz L. Kulikowski
In this chapter, a concept of using incomplete or fuzzy ontologies in decision making is presented. A definition of ontology and of ontological... Sample PDF
Logical Inference Based on Incomplete and/or Fuzzy Ontologies
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Chapter 2
Amelia Badica, Costin Badica, Elvira Popescu
The Web is designed as a major information provider for the human consumer. However, information published on the Web is difficult to understand and... Sample PDF
Using Logic Programming and XML Technologies for Data Extraction from Web Pages
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Chapter 3
Andreas Jacobsson, Paul Davidsson
This chapter introduces a formal model of virtual enterprises, as well as an analysis of their creation and operation. It is argued that virtual... Sample PDF
A Formal Analysis of Virtual Enterprise Creation and Operation
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Chapter 4
Donat Orski
The chapter concerns a class of systems composed of operations performed with the use of resources allocated to them. In such operation systems... Sample PDF
Application of Uncertain Variables to Knowledge-Based Resource Distribution
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Chapter 5
Clive Fencott
This chapter undertakes a methodological study of virtual environments (VEs), a specific subset of interactive systems. It takes as a central theme... Sample PDF
A Methodology of Design for Virtual Environments
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Chapter 6
Salvador Sanchez-Alonso, Dirk Frosch-Wilke
In current organizations, the models of knowledge creation include specific processes and elements that drive the production of knowledge aimed at... Sample PDF
An Ontological Representation of Competencies as Codified Knowledge
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Chapter 7
Marcos De Oliveira, Martin Purvis
In the distributed multi-agent systems discussed in this chapter, heterogeneous autonomous agents interoperate in order to achieve their goals. In... Sample PDF
Aspects of Openness in Multi-Agent Systems: Coordinating the Autonomy in Agent Societies
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Chapter 8
Kostas Kolomvatsos, Stathes Hadjiefthymiades
The field of Multi-agent systems (MAS) has been an active area for many years due to the importance that agents have to many disciplines of research... Sample PDF
How Can We Trust Agents in Multi-Agent Environments? Techniques and Challenges
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Chapter 9
Mariusz Nowostawski
The concept of autonomy is one of the central concepts in distributed computational systems, and in multi-agent systems in particular. With diverse... Sample PDF
The Concept of Autonomy in Distributed Computation and Multi-Agent Systems
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Chapter 10
Maryam Purvis, Toktam Ebadi, Bastin Tony Roy Savarimuthu
The objective of this research is to describe a mechanism to provide an improved library management system using RFID and agent technologies. One of... Sample PDF
An Agent-Based Library Management System Using RFID Technology
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Chapter 11
Sharmila Savarimuthu, Martin Purvis, Maryam Purvis, Mariusz Nowostawski
Societies are made of different kinds of agents, some cooperative and uncooperative. Uncooperative agents tend to reduce the overall performance of... Sample PDF
Mechanisms to Restrict Exploitation and Improve Societal Performance in Multi-Agent Systems
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Chapter 12
Bastin Tony Roy Savarimuthu, Maryam Purvis, Stephen Cranefield
Norms are shared expectations of behaviours that exist in human societies. Norms help societies by increasing the predictability of individual... Sample PDF
Norm Emergence in Multi-Agent Societies
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Chapter 13
Scott A. DeLoach, Madhukar Kumar
This chapter provides an overview of the Multi-agent Systems Engineering (MaSE) methodology for analyzing and designing multi-agent systems. MaSE... Sample PDF
Multi-Agent Systems Engineering: An Overview and Case Study
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Chapter 14
František Capkovic
An alternative approach to modeling and analysis of agents’ behaviour is presented in this chapter. The agents and agent systems are understood here... Sample PDF
Modeling, Analysing, and Control of Agents Behaviour
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Chapter 15
Martin Tabakov
This chapter presents a methodology for an image enhancement process of computed tomography perfusion images by means of partition generated with... Sample PDF
Using Fuzzy Segmentation for Colour Image Enhancement of Computed Tomography Perfusion Images
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Chapter 16
Giovanni Vincenti, Goran Trajkovski
This chapter presents an innovative approach to the field of information fusion. Fuzzy mediation differentiates itself from other algorithms, as... Sample PDF
Fuzzy Mediation in Shared Control and Online Learning
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Chapter 17
Adam Jatowt, Yukiko Kawai, Katsumi Tanaka
The Web is a useful data source for knowledge extraction, as it provides diverse content virtually on any possible topic. Hence, a lot of research... Sample PDF
Utilizing Past Web for Knowledge Discovery
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Chapter 18
Dariusz Król
In this chapter, we propose a generic framework in C# to distribute and compute tasks defined by users. Unlike the more popular models such as... Sample PDF
Example-Based Framework for Propagation of Tasks in Distributed Environments
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Chapter 19
Xia Xie, Jin Huang, Song Wu, Hai Jin, Melvin Koh, Jie Song, Simon See
In this chapter, we present a survey on some of the commercial players in the Grid industry, existing research done in the area of market-based Grid... Sample PDF
Survey on the Application of Economic and Market Theory for Grid Computing
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About the Contributors