Games of Strategy

Games of Strategy

Geraldine Ryan (University College Cork, Ireland) and Seamus Coffey (University College Cork, Ireland)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-843-7.ch046
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We think strategically whenever there are interactions between our decisions and other people’s decisions. In order to decide what we should do, we must first reason through how the other individuals are going to act or react. What are their aims? What options are open to them? In the light of our answers to these questions, we can decide what is the best way for us to act. Most business situations are interactive in the sense that the outcome of each decision emerges from the synthesis of firm owners, managers, employees, suppliers, and customers. Good decisions require that each decision-maker anticipate the decisions of the others. Game theory offers a systematic way of analysing strategic decision-making in interactive situations. It is a technique used to analyse situations where for two or more individuals the outcome of an action by one of them depends not only on their own action but also on the actions taken by the others (Binmore, 1992; Carmichael, 2005; McMillan, 1992). In these circumstances, the plans or strategies of one individual depend on their expectations about what the others are doing. Such interdependent situations can be compared to games of strategy. Games can be classified according to a variety of categories, including the timing of the play, the common or conflicting interests of the players, the number of times an interaction occurs, the amount of information available to the players, the type of rules, and the feasibility of coordinated action. Strategic moves manipulate the rules of the game to a player’s advantage. There are three types of strategic moves: commitments, threats, and promises. Only a credible strategic move will have the desired effect.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Payoff: A payoff is a number, also called utility, that reflects the desirability of an outcome to a player, for whatever reason. When the outcome is random, payoffs are usually weighted with their probabilities. The expected payoff incorporates the player’s attitude towards risk.

Maximin: Maximin is solely a one-person game strategy, that is, a principle which may be used when a person’s “competition” is nature or chance. It involves choosing the best of the worst possible outcomes.

Probability Theory: The use of statistics to analyze past predictable patterns and to reduce risk in future plans.

Rationality: A player is said to be rational if he seeks to play in a manner which maximises his own payoff. It is often assumed that the rationality of all players is common knowledge.

Game Theory: Game theory is the formal study of decision-making where several players must make choices that potentially affect the interests of the other players.

Dominant Strategy: A strategy dominates another strategy of a player if it always gives a better payoff to that player, regardless of what the other players are doing. It weakly dominates the other strategy if it is always at least as good.

Common Knowledge: A fact is common knowledge if all players know it and know that they all know it, and so on. The structure of the game is often assumed to be common knowledge among the players.

Mixed Strategy: A mixed strategy is an active randomisation with given probabilities that determine the player’s decision.

Nash Equilibrium: A Nash Equilibrium, also called strategic equilibrium, is a list of strategies, one for each player, which has the property that no player can unilaterally change his strategy and get a better payoff.

Zero-Sum Game: A game is said to be zero-sum if, for any outcome, the sum of the payoffs to all players is zero. In a two-player zero-sum game, one player’s gain is the other player’s loss, so their interests are diametrically opposed.

Perfect Information: A game has perfect information when, at any point in time, only one player makes a move and knows all the actions that have been made until then.

Complete Chapter List

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Jean-Charles Pomerol
Frédéric Adam, Patrick Humphreys
Chapter 1
Arkadiusz Januszewski
The selection of the right cost calculation method is of critical importance when it comes to determining the real product profitability (as well as... Sample PDF
Activity-Based Costing System for a Small Manufacturing Company: A Case Study
Chapter 2
Zita Zoltay Paprika
Many management scholars believe that the process used to make strategic decisions affects the quality of those decisions. However, several authors... Sample PDF
Analysis and Intuition in Strategic Decision Making: The Case of California
Chapter 3
John Wang, Chandana Chakraborty, Huanyu Ouyang
The challenges of evaluation and decision making are encountered in every sphere of life and on a regular basis. The nature of the required... Sample PDF
The Analytic Hierarchy Process: Structuring, Measurement, and Synthesis
Chapter 4
Sven A. Carlsson
Commentators on decision support and decision support systems (DSS) have called for serious discussion of the discourses underpinning decision... Sample PDF
An Attention-Based View on DSS
Chapter 5
Ricardo Colomo Palacios, Juan Miguel Gómez Berbís, Ángel García Crespo
The balanced scorecard (BSC) harnesses the potential of checking and verifying the status of a company by evaluating and carefully assessing... Sample PDF
Balanced Scorecard Concepts, Technology, and Applications
Chapter 6
Maria Eugénia Captivo, João Clímaco, Sérgio Fernandes
In location problems we want to determine the best way to serve a set of clients, or communities, whose location and demand are known. This implies... Sample PDF
A Bi-Criteria DSS Dedicated to Location Problems
Chapter 7
Amit V. Deokar, Omar F. El-Gayar
The complexities involved in managing intrafunctional as well as interfunctional activities have triggered many organizations to deploy large... Sample PDF
Business Process Management Systems for Supporting Individual and Group Decision Making
Chapter 8
Sergio F. Ochoa, José A. Pino
An urgent challenge confronting society today is the vulnerability of urban areas to “eXtreme” Events (XEs) (Mileti, 1999; CWR, 2002; Godschalk... Sample PDF
Challenges for Decision Support in Urban Disaster Scenarios
Chapter 9
Malcolm J. Beynon
The classification and ranking belief simplex (CaRBS), introduced in Beynon (2005a), is a nascent technique for the decision problems of object... Sample PDF
Classification and Ranking Belief Simplex
Chapter 10
Thomas Madritsch, Michael May, Herwig Ostermann, Roland Staudinger
Nowadays facility management (FM) and real estate activities contribute to about 5-10% of the gross domestic product (GDP) of advanced... Sample PDF
Computer Aided Facility Management (CAFM) as a New Branch of Decision Making Support Technologies in the Field of Facility Management
Chapter 11
Alexandre Gachet, Ralph Sprague
Finding appropriate decision support systems (DSS) development processes and methodologies is a topic that has kept researchers in the decision... Sample PDF
Context in Decision Support Systems Development
Chapter 12
Patrick Brézillon, Jean-Charles Pomerol
Decision makers face a very large number of heterogeneous contextual cues; some of these pieces are always relevant (time period, unpredicted event... Sample PDF
Contextualization in Decision Making and Decision Support
Chapter 13
Pascale Zaraté
The subject of our research aims to support in the most suitable way the collaborative decision-making process. Several scientific approaches deal... Sample PDF
Cooperative Decision Support Systems
Chapter 14
Dashboards for Management  (pages 116-123)
Werner Beuschel
Dashboard system applications have been known in companies for several years. As the growing body of references shows, dashboards are now about to... Sample PDF
Dashboards for Management
Chapter 15
John Wang, James Yao, Qiyang Chen
Today’s business environment is dynamic and uncertain. Competition among business organizations is becoming more intensified and globalized. These... Sample PDF
Data Warehousing for Decision Support
Chapter 16
Meliha Handzic
The need to improve decision making is a longstanding concern in decision support research. As the accelerated technological development and fierce... Sample PDF
Debiasing Decision Makers Through Knowledge Management
Chapter 17
Patrick Humphreys
The discourses established as the foundations of group decision support systems (GDSS) have been called into question not only in the interests of... Sample PDF
The Decision Hedgehog: Group Communication and Decision Support
Chapter 18
A. Dolgui, O. Guschinskaya, N. Guschinsky, G. Levin
The design of manufacturing systems is a wide open area for development and application of decision making and decision support technologies. This... Sample PDF
Decision Making and Support Tools for Design of Machining Systems
Chapter 19
A. Dolgui, O. Guschinskaya, N. Guschinsky, G. Levin
Transmission systems are crucial components of many machines and mechanisms. Ken Hurst (1998) highlights that whether you are designing power... Sample PDF
Decision-Making and Support Tools for Design of Transmission Systems
Chapter 20
Ivan Bruha
A rule-inducing learning algorithm yields a set of decision rules that depict knowledge discovered from a (usually large) dataset; therefore, this... Sample PDF
Decision Making by a Multiple-Rule Classifier: The Role of Rule Qualities
Chapter 21
Viviane Barbosa Diniz, Marcos R.S. Borges, José Orlando Gomes, José H. Canós
An emergency event can be chronologically divided into three phases: prevention, response, and investigation. Preventive actions attempt to... Sample PDF
Decision Making Support in Emergency Response
Chapter 22
David Paradice
While decision choices are certainly important and warrant appropriate attention, early stages of the decisionmaking process may be even more... Sample PDF
Decision Support and Problem Formulation Activity
Chapter 23
Hannu Kivijärvi, Markku Tuominen
Investments in new manufacturing systems are vital for the well-being of the company as they are means of achieving the objectives and goals the... Sample PDF
A Decision Support System for Evaluation of Investments in a Computer-Integrated Production System
Chapter 24
Khaled M. Khan
Web service is becoming an important area of business processing and research for enterprise systems. Various Web service providers currently offer... Sample PDF
A Decision Support System for Selecting Secure Web Services
Chapter 25
Udo Richard Averweg
Decision support systems (DSS) deal with semi-structured problems. Such problems arise when managers in organisations are faced with decisions where... Sample PDF
Decision Support Systems and Decision-Making Processes
Chapter 26
Patrick Humphreys
Problem solving has been defined as the complex interplay of cognitive, affective, and behavioural processes with the aim to adapt to external or... Sample PDF
Decision Support Systems and Representation Levels in the Decision Spine
Chapter 27
Daniel J. Power
Since the late 1960s, researchers have been developing and implementing computerized systems to support management decision makers. A number of... Sample PDF
Decision Support Systems Concept
Chapter 28
James Yao, John Wang, Qiyang Chen, June Lu
Information systems were developed in early 1960s to process orders, billings, inventory controls, payrolls, and accounts payables. Soon information... Sample PDF
Development and Design Methodologies in DWM
Chapter 29
Dina Neiger, Leonid Churilov
Recent research (Keller & Teufel, 1998; Klaus, Rosemann, & Gable, 2000; Powell, Schwaninger, & Trimble, 2001) has clearly demonstrated that years of... Sample PDF
Diagrammatic Decision-Support Modeling Tools in the Context of Supply Chain Management
Chapter 30
Zhen Chen, Heng Li, Qian Xu, Szu-Li Sun
The choice of location is one of the most important decisions usually taken in the procedure of building any production system (Pavic & Babic... Sample PDF
The Disaster-Oriented Assessment of Urban Clusters for Locating Production Systems in China
Chapter 31
Omar F. El-Gayar, Amit V. Deokar
Modern organizations are faced with numerous information management challenges in an increasingly complex and dynamic environment. Vast amounts of... Sample PDF
Distributed Model Management: Current Status and Future Directions
Chapter 32
DS/AHP  (pages 278-285)
Malcolm J. Beynon
DS/AHP was introduced in Beynon, Curry, and Morgan (2000) and Beynon (2002a), and is a nascent method of multi-criteria decision support. Following... Sample PDF
Chapter 33
David Paradice, Robert A. Davis
Decision support systems have always had a goal of supporting decision-makers. Over time, DSS have taken many forms, or many forms of computer-based... Sample PDF
DSS and Multiple Perspectives of Complex Problems
Chapter 34
Ran M. Bittmann, Roy M. Gelbard
The problem of analyzing datasets and classifying them into clusters based on known properties is a well known problem with implementations in... Sample PDF
DSS Using Visualization of Multi-Algorithms Voting
Chapter 35
Norman Pendegraft, Mark Rounds
Simulation is a powerful methodology for decision support because it allows managers to experiment with models prior to implementing a policy or... Sample PDF
Dynamic System Simulation for Decision Support
Chapter 36
Norizah Mustamil, Mohammed Quaddus
Studies have shown that organizations are putting more effort in enforcing the ethical practices in their decision making activities (Janet, Armen... Sample PDF
Ethical Decision Making: A Critical Assessment and an Integrated Model
Chapter 37
Gloria E. Phillips-Wren, Manuel Mora, Guisseppi Forgionne
Decision support systems (DSSs) have been researched extensively over the years with the purpose of aiding the decision maker (DM) in an... Sample PDF
Evaluation of Decision-Making Support Systems
Chapter 38
Giusseppi Forgionne, Stephen Russell
Contemporary decision-making support systems (DMSSs) are large systems that vary in nature, combining functionality from two or more classically... Sample PDF
The Evaluation of Decision-Making Support Systems' Functionality
Chapter 39
Margaret W. Wood, David C. Rine
For leaders, decision making is a charge that cannot be escaped. For those who prefer to avoid this responsibility, the startling truth is that not... Sample PDF
Exploring the Risks That Affect Community College Decision Makers
Chapter 40
David Sammon
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) packages can be described as the most sought after means of organisational transformation and IT innovation since... Sample PDF
An Extended Model of Decision Making: A Devil's Advocate Workshop
Chapter 41
Simon Woodworth, Joe Cunningham
This article discusses how Small to Medium Enterprises (SMEs) apply information systems (IS) to facilitate decisions concerning their supply chains.... Sample PDF
Facilitation of Supply Chain Decision Processes in SMEs, Using Information Systems
Chapter 42
G. Kouamou, C. Pettang
The interest in urban planning and development is a major preoccupation in the two last decades. In fact, the urban development is the act of... Sample PDF
A Federative Approach of Decision-Making Aid in Urban Development
Chapter 43
Fátima C.C. Dargam
Generation and most of all sustainability of organizational success rely heavily on proper decision making and on the application of knowledge... Sample PDF
Finite-Base Revision Supporting Knowledge Management and Decision Making
Chapter 44
Fuzzy Decision Trees  (pages 382-390)
Malcolm J. Beynon
The first (crisp) decision tree techniques were introduced in the 1960s (Hunt, Marin, & Stone, 1966), their appeal to decision makers is due in no... Sample PDF
Fuzzy Decision Trees
Chapter 45
P. Serra, R. A. Ribeiro, R. Marques Pereira, R. Steel, M. Niezette, A. Donati
In the aerospace field, where satellites and spacecraft contain numerous components that require constant, yet indirect, surveillance of large... Sample PDF
Fuzzy Thermal Alarm System for Venus Express
Chapter 46
Games of Strategy  (pages 402-409)
Geraldine Ryan, Seamus Coffey
We think strategically whenever there are interactions between our decisions and other people’s decisions. In order to decide what we should do, we... Sample PDF
Games of Strategy
Chapter 47
John Wang, Dajin Wang, Aihua Li
Within the realm of multicriteria decision making (MCDM) exists a powerful method for solving problems with multiple objectives. Goal programming... Sample PDF
Goal Programming and Its Variants
Chapter 48
Alexey Petrovsky
Ordering and classification of objects by their properties are among the typical problems in multiple criteria decision aiding (MCDA). The... Sample PDF
Group Verbal Decision Analysis
Chapter 49
Frédéric Adam, Jean-Charles Pomerol, Patrick Brézillon
In this article, a newspaper company which has implemented a computerised editorial system is studied in an attempt to understand the impact that... Sample PDF
How Groupware Systems Can Change How an Organisation Makes Decisions: A Case Study in the Publishing Industry
Chapter 50
Marcelo Índio dos Reis, Marcos R.S. Borges, José Orlando Gomes
All emergency management phases demands knowledge that is embedded in procedures and also in the minds of people who handle them. Specifically in... Sample PDF
Identifying Resilient Actions in Decision Making During Emergencies
Chapter 51
Fergal Carton
Multinational companies faced with an uncertain world are notorious for centralising control of their far flung empires to the extent that local... Sample PDF
The Impact on Decision Making of Centralisation in a Multinational Manufacturing Company: The Materials Purchasing Function
Chapter 52
Manual Mora, Ovsei Gelman, Guisseppi Forgionne, Francisco Cervantes
This article reviews the literature-based issues involved in implementing large-scale decision-making support systems (DMSSs). Unlike previous... Sample PDF
The Implementation of Large-Scale Decision-Making Support Systems: Problems, Findings, and Challenges
Chapter 53
John McAvoy, Tom Butler
Agile software development (ASD) is now widely used in the software development industry; accordingly, it has been the focus of research with... Sample PDF
Ineffective Decision Making in Adopting an Agile Software Development Methodology
Chapter 54
Peter O’Donnell, Rob Meredith
This article examines the application of a modeling technique called influence diagramming to decision support system (DSS) analysis. Influence... Sample PDF
Influence Diagrams as a Tool for Decision Support System Design
Chapter 55
Cristina Casado Lumbreras, Ricardo Colomo Palacios, Juan Miguel Gómez Berbís
In the present study, we focus on the influence of emotions and the emotional consequences of decisionmaking processes. Specifically, we have... Sample PDF
The Influence of Emotions in Making Hard Decisions in Organizational Contexts
Chapter 56
Ramon Brena, Carlos Chesñevar
Information and knowledge (IK) are each day more valuable assets in modern organizations (Atkinson, Court, & Ward, 1998; Carrillo, 1998; Liebowitz &... Sample PDF
Information Distribution Decisions Supported by Argumentation
Chapter 57
Dina Neiger, Leonid Churilov
Historically, diagrammatic representations of processes have been widely used to effectively communicate complex and interrelated ideas and concepts... Sample PDF
Integration of Diagrammatic Business Modeling Tools
Chapter 58
Gloria E. Phillips-Wren
Internet-based, distributed systems have become essential in modern organizations. When combined with artificial intelligence (AI) techniques such... Sample PDF
Intelligent Agents in Decision Support Systems
Chapter 59
Ilya Ashikhmin, Eugenia Furems, Alexey Petrovsky, Michael Sternin
Verbal decision analysis (VDA) is a relatively new term introduced in Larichev and Moshkovich (1997) for a methodological approach to discrete... Sample PDF
Intelligent DSS Under Verbal Decision Analysis
Chapter 60
R.A. Ribeiro, I.L. Nunes
The objective of this article is to discuss the usability and suitability of having graphical visualization tools for decision support in Space... Sample PDF
Interfaces Usability for Monitoring Systems
Chapter 61
Pandian Vasant, Hrishikesh S. Kale
Fuzzy logic (FL) is a mathematical technique for dealing with imprecise data and problems that have many solutions rather than one. Although it is... Sample PDF
Introduction to Fuzzy Logic and Fuzzy Linear Programming
Chapter 62
Peer-Olaf Siebers, Uwe Aickelin
When designing systems that are complex, dynamic, and stochastic in nature, simulation is generally recognised as one of the best design support... Sample PDF
Introduction to Multi-Agent Simulation
Chapter 63
Knowledge Based DSS  (pages 565-575)
Michel R. Klein
“A knowledge based DSS is a computer information system that provides information and methodological knowledge (domain knowledge and decision... Sample PDF
Knowledge Based DSS
Chapter 64
James D. Jones
Knowledge representation is a field of artificial intelligence that has been actively pursued since the 1940s.1 The issues at stake are that given a... Sample PDF
Knowledge Representation to Empower Expert Systems
Chapter 65
Camille Rosenthal-Sabroux, Michel Grundstein, Fernando Iafrate
The concept of information system covers two notions: on the one hand, the reality of the evolving organization that collects, communicates, and... Sample PDF
A Knowledge Worker Desktop Model (KWDM) Applied to Decision Support System
Chapter 66
James D. Jones
“Expert systems” are a significant subset of what is known as “decision support systems” (DSS). This article suggests a different paradigm for... Sample PDF
Logic Programming Languages for Expert Systems
Chapter 67
Stephan Scheuerer
Decision support systems (DSSs) provide modern solution techniques that help the decision maker to find the best solution to a problem. These... Sample PDF
Metaheuristics: Heuristic Techniques for Combinatorial Optimization Problems
Chapter 68
Osvaldo García de la Cerda, Renato Orellana Muermann
In the last decades organizational transformation has become a fundamental strategy for survival. It is a multi dimensional change of relationship... Sample PDF
Metasystemic Re-Engineering: An Organizational Intervention
Chapter 69
Joanna Lumsden
Artifact selection decisions typically involve the selection of one from a number of possible/candidate options (decision alternatives). In order to... Sample PDF
A Method for Systematic Artifact Selection Decision Making
Chapter 70
Arkadiusz Januszweski
Changes that occur in the environment of a given company and a constantly growing competition make the managers enhance the management system. The... Sample PDF
The Method of Appraising Needs and Possibilities of Activity-Based Costing Implementation
Chapter 71
Frada Burstein, J. Cowie
The wide availability of advanced information and communication technology has made it possible for users to expect a much wider access to decision... Sample PDF
Mobile Decision Support for Time-Critical Decision Making
Chapter 72
Peer-Olaf Siebers, Uwe Aickelin, Helen Celia, Chris Clegg
Intelligent agents offer a new and exciting way of understanding the world of work. Agent-based simulation (ABS), one way of using intelligent... Sample PDF
Multi-Agent Simulation and Management Practices
Chapter 73
Csaba Csáki
During the history of decision support systems (DSSs)— in fact, during the history of theoretical investigations of human decision-making... Sample PDF
The Mythical Decision Maker: Models of Roles in Decision Making
Chapter 74
Brad Morantz, Thomas Whalen, G. Peter Zhang
In building a decision support system (DSS), an important component is the modeling of each potential alternative action to predict its consequence.... Sample PDF
Neural Network Time Series Forecasting Using Recency Weighting
Chapter 75
Chris Schlueter Langdon
In 1991 “Terminator 2” revolutionized the use of computers for digital effects or computer-generated imagery (CGI) in movies (, 2006).... Sample PDF
Next Generation Analytics and Dynamic Decision Support: AutoMarketSIM and Vehicle Sales Decay Navigation
Chapter 76
Manual Mora, Francisco Cervantes, Guisseppi Forgionne, Ovsei Gelman
Making organizational decisions is a critical and central activity to successful operations of profit and nonprofit-based organizations (Huber... Sample PDF
On Frameworks and Architectures for Intelligent Decision-Making Support Systems
Chapter 77
Tan Yigitcanlar, Jung Hoon Han, Sang Ho Lee
In today’s information society, electronic tools, such as computer networks for the rapid transfer of data and composite databases for information... Sample PDF
Online Environmental Information Systems
Chapter 78
Tan Yigitcanlar, Omur Saygin
Countless factors affect the inner workings of a city, so in an attempt to gain an understanding of place and making sound decisions, planners need... Sample PDF
Online Urban Information Systems
Chapter 79
João Carlos Namorado Clímaco, João Carlos Soares de Mello, Lidia Angulo Meza
Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is a non-parametric technique to measure the efficiency of productive units as they transform inputs into outputs. A... Sample PDF
Performance Measurement: From DEA to MOLP
Chapter 80
Luis Antunes, Ana Respício, João Balsa, Helder Coelho
Public policies are concerned with the definition of guidelines that promote the achievement of specific goals by a society/community of citizens.... Sample PDF
Policy Decision Support Through Social Simulation
Chapter 81
Geraldine Ryan, Edward Shinnick
The organisation of the workplace is evolving. In many industries, mass production by large, vertically integrated, hierarchically organised firms... Sample PDF
The Power of Incentives in Decision Making
Chapter 82
N. Chugunov, G. Shepelyov, M. Sternin
The complexity and interdisciplinary nature of modern problems are often coupled with uncertainty inherent to real-life situations. There is a wide... Sample PDF
Probabilistic Methods for Uncertainty Quantification
Chapter 83
PROMETHEE  (pages 743-750)
Malcolm J. Beynon
PROMETHEE (preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation) introduced in Brans, Mareschal, and Vincke (1984) and Brans, Vincke... Sample PDF
Chapter 84
Malcolm J. Beynon
This article concerns itself with qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), introduced in Ragin (1987), it is a technique that attempts to identify... Sample PDF
Qualitative Comparative Analysis
Chapter 85
Todd McElroy
Decisions, decisions, decisions, we are constantly faced with them everyday. Should I get out of bed or sleep 10 more minutes? Should I hit the... Sample PDF
Rational Decision Making, Dual Processes, and Framing: Current Thoughts and Perspectives
Chapter 86
Bernadette Power
An understanding of human decision making is a fundamental step toward the development of effective intelligent decision support systems (Newell &... Sample PDF
Real Options Reasoning as a Tool for Managerial Decision Making
Chapter 87
Edward Shinnick, Geraldine Ryan
The advent of the World Wide Web and other communication technologies has significantly changed how we access information, the amount of information... Sample PDF
The Role of Information in Decision Making
Chapter 88
Rough Set Theory  (pages 783-789)
Malcolm J. Beynon
Rough set theory (RST), since its introduction in Pawlak (1982), continues to develop as an effective tool in classification problems and decision... Sample PDF
Rough Set Theory
Chapter 89
Dorrie DeLuca, Joseph S. Valacich
As cost constraints and expanding geographic and temporal boundaries move organizations toward virtual team work for increasingly complex tasks... Sample PDF
Situational Synchronicity for Decision Support
Chapter 90
Software Agents  (pages 798-806)
Stanislaw Stanek, Maciej Gawinecki, Malgorzata Pankowska, Shahram Rahimi
The origins of the software agent concept are often traced back to the pioneers of artificial intelligence—John Mc Carthy, the creator of LISP... Sample PDF
Software Agents
Chapter 91
Chad Lin, Koong Lin
An executive information system (EIS) provides senior management with easy access to information relevant to their needs. It can spread horizontally... Sample PDF
A Study of Information Requirement Determination Process of an Executive Information System
Chapter 92
Liam Doyle
Supply chains have become have become increasingly important as organisations have moved from competing on a stand-alone basis to recognizing that... Sample PDF
Supply Chain Information Systems and Decision Support
Chapter 93
Hannu Kivijärvi, Markku Tuominen, Kalle Elfvengren, Kalle Piirainen, Samuli Kortelainen
In modern day business, management of uncertainty in the environment has become a vital part in building success. The increasing speed of changes in... Sample PDF
A Support System for the Strategic Scenario Process
Chapter 94
C.W. Holsapple
This article develops the notion of decisional episodes as a basis for understanding ways in which decisions can be supported. Grounded in and... Sample PDF
Supporting Decisional Episodes
Chapter 95
Mattias Strand, Sven A. Carlsson
It has become increasingly important for firms to monitor the competitive forces affecting their business and competitiveness (Arnott & Pervan... Sample PDF
Syndicate Date Suppliers: Their Business Environment, the Industry, and Their Core Business Process
Chapter 96
Robert Fitzgerald, John Findlay
This article reports on a new breed of tool that supports both higher-level thinking and, more importantly, human- to-human interaction in the form... Sample PDF
Team Learning Systems as a Collaborative Technology for Rapid Knowledge Creation
Chapter 97
Hanan Yaniv, Susan Crichton
Getting a large audience to actively participate in a lecture is a challenge faced by many lecturers. The value of active participation is well... Sample PDF
ThinkClick: A Case Study of a Large Group Decision Support System (LGDSS)
Chapter 98
Hanan Yaniv
People make decisions all the time. They make decisions alone; they make decisions together with others. Some fields have been focusing on the... Sample PDF
ThinkTeam: GDSS Methodology and Technology as a Collaborative Learning Task
Chapter 99
Pat Finnegan, Jeremy Hayes
The electronic business landscape is confusing for many new entrants, and many of them face the paradox that hesitation would run the risk of being... Sample PDF
Towards a Framework for Assisting Decision-Makers Assess the Potential of E-Business Models
Chapter 100
Giusseppi Forgionne, Stephen Russell
All decision-making support systems (DMSS) provide both input and output feedback for the user. This feedback helps the user find a problem solution... Sample PDF
Unambiguous Goal Seeking Through Mathematical Modeling
Chapter 101
Georg Peters
One of the main challenges in decision making is how to deal with uncertainty and vagueness. The classic uncertainty concept is probability, which... Sample PDF
Uncertainty and Vagueness Concepts in Decision Making
Chapter 102
David Sammon
Non-decision making (NDM) has received limited attention in the research literature. However, this is surprising bearing in mind that the concept of... Sample PDF
Understanding Non-Decision Making
Chapter 103
David Sammon
The relevance of decision-making theory in improving understanding has been called into question especially when attempting to understand... Sample PDF
Understanding Sense-Making
Chapter 104
Frédéric Adam, Jean-Charles Pomerol
Many researchers have noted the high levels of abstraction required by the representation and conceptualisation of organisational decisions when... Sample PDF
Understanding the Influence of Context on Organisational Decision Making
Chapter 105
Jean-Charles Pomerol, Frédéric Adam
Herbert Simon is unique in our discipline in terms of the far-reaching impact which his work has had on management and the understanding of... Sample PDF
Understanding the Legacy of Herbert Simon to Decision Support Systems
Chapter 106
Giusseppi Forgionne, Stephen Russell
Decision-making support-system (DMSS) research has been based largely on case and field studies of real organizations or entities and laboratory... Sample PDF
The Use of Simulation as an Experimental Methodology for DMSS Research
Chapter 107
Frédéric Adam
Network analysis, a body of research that concentrates on the social networks that connect actors in society, has been found to have many... Sample PDF
Using Network Analysis for Understanding How Decisions are Made
Chapter 108
Zhen Chen, Ju Hong, Heng Li, Qian Xu
This article presents the knowledge-oriented information visualization (KIV) approach to facilitating the utilization of building rating systems at... Sample PDF
Web-Based Decision Support for Knowledge Sharing and Management in Intelligent Buildings Assessment
Chapter 109
Tan Yigitcanlar, Ori Gudes
Decision support systems (DSS) have evolved rapidly during the last decade from stand alone or limited networked solutions to online participatory... Sample PDF
Web-Based Public Participatory GIS
About the Editors