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Gender and Professionalism in IT Fields

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DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59140-815-4.ch070
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MLA

Ben, Esther Ruiz. "Gender and Professionalism in IT Fields." Encyclopedia of Gender and Information Technology. IGI Global, 2006. 446-452. Web. 21 Oct. 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-59140-815-4.ch070

APA

Ben, E. R. (2006). Gender and Professionalism in IT Fields. In E. Trauth (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Gender and Information Technology (pp. 446-452). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. doi:10.4018/978-1-59140-815-4.ch070

Chicago

Ben, Esther Ruiz. "Gender and Professionalism in IT Fields." In Encyclopedia of Gender and Information Technology, ed. Eileen M. Trauth, 446-452 (2006), accessed October 21, 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-59140-815-4.ch070

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Abstract

From a historical point of view, IT professions have their origin in increasing computerisation, especially in the insurance and banking businesses. This stimulated a rise in demand for highly qualified programmers with the ability to take into account the economic side of business gains during the 60s1. To satisfy the need for such qualified people, computer science was institutionalised in universities in the 70s. The newly emerging software enterprises, mostly from the U.S., occupied the fields formally served by hardware enterprises and played a crucial role in the development of the IT industry. This included the development of new organisational cultures that were less hierarchically oriented. Moreover, the expansion of the sector and creation of new jobs enlarged the jurisdictional fields of work for software developers. At this stage in the evolution of IT professionalisation, we can find many optimistic views stating that new computing areas would be gender-neutral spaces that provided opportunities for women’s participation (Deakin, 1984). Nevertheless, as Griffiths (1988, p. 145) pointed out at the end of the eighties, within a decade computers had been appropriated by men. With the Internet boom of the 1990s, the sector became even more diversified in its jurisdictional fields, which hindered an institutionalisation of career paths and professionalisation2. New occupations arose alongside the technological progress in the information and communication industries. This brought about structural changes that influenced the development of professional groups: First, there was a common dynamic of innovation processes in the IT branch.” This was followed by increasing standardisation processes in the working fields and an essential erosion of jurisdictional constancy within the professional groups (Baukrowitz & Boes, 2000). Moreover, the jurisdictional fields for computer scientists, especially the field of application development, were not yet totally monopolised by any particular group because there was “no undisputed dominance of information technological knowledge” (Hartmann, 1995, p. 164). Thus to a large extent, the failure to restrict the jurisdictional fields of computer science is the reason for “the low professionalisation” of the sector (Rothenwald, 2001, p. 17). From a gender perspective, the first question that arises here is how women participate in this particular development of the IT professions. From a historical perspective, Kritzer points out that the so-called semi-professions (those without a recognized and institutionalised corpus of expertise) have been the main area of women’s paid work, while the professions have been male-dominated (Kritzer, 1999). Connected to this division of work, we can also observe a horizontal gender segregation of professions with implications for the inclusion/exclusion of men and women from certain professional areas irrespective of task attributes that correspond to stereotyping in male or female terms. In this sense, Witz (1990, p. 675) refers to “professionalisation projects.” Nevertheless, these projects also change over time. Gatta and Ross (2002) point out that changing societal expectations of men’s and women’s roles, changing skill mixes, declining discrimination, and reduced male resistance to women’s entry into work influences the increase of women’s presence in traditionally male occupations and also alters employers’ expectations. As we can see from historical discussions of computer science3, women have always been involved in computing and mathematics. Nevertheless, several authors have shown that women are concentrated in those IT occupation areas with the poorest employment conditions, whereas men are overrepresented in fields that are more valued, such as technical management, systems analysis, and programming (Ruiz Ben, 2003; Webster, 1996; Webster & Valenduc, 2003; Woodfield, 2000). The question arising here involves the extent to which the professionalisation process of IT occupations represents an opportunity for women to play an active role in the innovation paths of the information society, as well as the gendering or de-gendering practices linked to this process. Our aim in this chapter is to provide an overview of the scholarly literature in the social sciences on the debate about gender and professionalisation in IT fields and sort through the current discussion about the professionalisation of software development in Germany. We present evidence for the gender segregation in IT professions and discuss the key issues that have been addressed by the empirical literature.
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Complete Chapter List

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Chapter 1
Nancy Muturi
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have made the global village a reality with the Internet, cell phones and other digital... Sample PDF
Access and the Use of ICTs Among Women in Jamaica
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Chapter 2
Orit Hazzan, Dalit Levy
The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is a major force in advancing the skills of information-technology professionals and students... Sample PDF
ACM's Attention ot Women in IT
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Chapter 3
Rashaad E.T. Jones, Ivanna S. Terrell, Erik S. Conners
We feel that it is essential to ask: Why study video games as a form of information technology? Are video games not a mindless and childish form of... Sample PDF
Addressing the Gender Gap in IT via Women's Preferences in Video Games
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Chapter 4
Michael J. Gallivan
There is a long tradition of research on IS professionals that has examined potential gender differences between men and women, beginning with early... Sample PDF
Age, Gender, and Cognitive Style Differneces in IS Professionals
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Chapter 5
Leena Ghoshal, Katia Passerini
Gender appears to be a fundamental category for ordering and classifying social relations in the world (Evans, 1994). The first thing we are told... Sample PDF
Analyzing Gender Segregation in Comuting
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Chapter 6
Darryl Coulthard, Tanya Castletan
When people refer to gender issues in information systems, they draw on an implicit understanding of what this means, but may be unaware of the... Sample PDF
Approaches to Conceptualizing Gender
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Chapter 7
Deirdre Hynes, Tarja Tiainen, Emma-Reetta Koivunen, Minna-Kristiina Paakki
The most common definition of the information society lays emphasis upon spectacular technological innovation and the transformative effects of new... Sample PDF
Articulating ICT Use Narratives in Everyday Life
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Chapter 8
Kaylene Clayton
Information and communication technology (ICT) is integrated into almost every daily activity. Yet, few females today are choosing ICT based... Sample PDF
Attitudes Towards ICT in Australian High Schools
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Chapter 9
Catherine Lang, Judy McKay
Australia, like other western nations, is experiencing a downturn in overall enrollments in higher education information technology (IT) degree... Sample PDF
Australian IT Enrollment Trends and Model of Contributing Factors
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Chapter 10
J. Ann Dumas
The 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, China, addressed gender equality issues in many areas of global society, including information... Sample PDF
The Beijing World Conference on Women, ICT Policy, and Gender
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Chapter 11
Andrea Birbaumer, Marianne Tolar, Ina Wagner
There is a deep gender imbalance in information and communication technology (ICT) professions which are only about 17% female (compare Valenduc et... Sample PDF
Biographical Stories of European Women Working in ICT
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Chapter 12
Sonja Bernhardt
In comparison to research on gender diversity on boards, little research has been conducted on the diversity of board skills required for survival... Sample PDF
Boards Need Women with IT
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Chapter 13
Briga Hynes, Ita Richardson
In the early 21st century, there continues to be an unbalanced ratio of males to females both studying for and in technological positions in... Sample PDF
Bridging th Entrepreneurial and Technology Gap for Women
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Chapter 14
David M. Kaplan, Fred Niederman
Frequently researchers cite the perceived masculinity (Ahuja, 2002; Muryn Kaminiski & Reilly, 2004; Trauth, 2002) of information technology (IT)... Sample PDF
Career Management Concerns for Women in IT
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Chapter 15
Chetan Sharma, Divya Jain
In India, the practice of sex-selective abortion or female foeticide (in which an unborn baby is aborted or killed before birth simply because it is... Sample PDF
Checking Female Foeticide in the Information Age
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Chapter 16
Paul F. Cleary
A considerable amount of interest in the past several years has been devoted to the characteristics and dynamics of the fast-growing information... Sample PDF
Childhood Interest in Computers and Adult Career Choices in IT
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Chapter 17
Alfred P. Rovai, Jason D. Baker
Numerous studies have demonstrated that alternative educational experiences, such as online learning, produce outcomes similar to face-to-face... Sample PDF
Community and Gender in the Virtual Classroom
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Chapter 18
Sylvia Beyer
Why do so few women major in computer science (CS) or management information systems (MIS)? Are the reasons for women’s underrepresentation in these... Sample PDF
Comparing Gender Differences in Computer Science and Management Information Systems Majors
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Chapter 19
Anoush Simon
This article seeks to discuss women’s ambivalent but potentially positive attitude to and relationship with new technologies, as exemplified by... Sample PDF
A Complex View of Technological Change in the UK
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Chapter 20
Sonya S. Gaither Shepherd
The creation of computer software and hardware, telecommunications, databases, and the Internet has affected society as a whole, and particularly... Sample PDF
Computer Skills, Technostress, and Gender in Higher Education
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Chapter 21
Barbara J. Crump, Keri Logan, Andrea McIlroy
Governments and international organisations have expressed concern regarding what has been labeled the digital divide, that is, the gap between... Sample PDF
Computing in a New Zealand Urban Community
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Chapter 22
Tarja Tiainen
Gender bias in technical fields, as in computer science (CS), is a well-known phenomenon. It is shown in presenting computing history as a male... Sample PDF
Constructing Gender Bias in Computer Science
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Chapter 23
Eileen M. Trauth, Debra Howcroft
In 1991 Orlikowski and Baroudi published a seminal paper about the role of epistemological lenses in shaping information systems (IS) research.... Sample PDF
Critical Research on Gender and Information Systems
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Chapter 24
Haiyan Huang
The underrepresentation of women in the information technology (IT) sector has been widely studied in the contexts of western countries such as... Sample PDF
The Cross-Cultural Dimension of Gender and Information Technology
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Chapter 25
Clem Herman
This article examines the role of community-based training initiatives in enabling women to cross the so-called digital divide and become confident... Sample PDF
Crossing the Digital Divide in a Women's Community ICT Centre
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Chapter 26
Phyl Web, Judy Young
There is a considerable body of research to support the longstanding problem of a gender imbalance in the ICT industry (Ahuja, 2002; Baroudi &... Sample PDF
Cultural Factors and Collective Identity of Women in ICT
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Chapter 27
Merete Lie
This article introduces a cultural studies approach to the field of gender and ICT. This implies an emphasis on the symbolic aspects of technology.... Sample PDF
A Cultural Studies Approach to Gender and ICT
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Chapter 28
Cyber/Ecofeminism  (pages 172-177)
Kaarina Kailo
Cyber/ecofeminism is a holistic concept that I have coined and adopted to approach the burning issues of information technology, women’s studies... Sample PDF
Cyber/Ecofeminism
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Chapter 29
Noemi Maria Sadowska
Development of the World Wide Web (WWW) prompted a flurry of research investigating women’s participation in the creation, production, and use of... Sample PDF
Design and Women's Expectations of WWW Experience
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Chapter 30
Annemijn van Gorp
The explosive growth of information and communication technologies has become a worldwide phenomenon. However, merely countries in the West as well... Sample PDF
Developing Country Perspective on Women's ICT Adoption
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Chapter 31
Rekha Pande
Information technology is being perceived as the magical wand and the harbinger of prosperity as it can guarantee access to global markets and... Sample PDF
Digital Divide, Gender and the Indian Experience in IT
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Chapter 32
Claire Keogh, Angela Tattersall, Helen Richardson
The UK labour market is dramatically changing, with rapid technological innovations alongside globalisation where organisations are required to... Sample PDF
Directing Equal Pay in the UK ICT Labour Market
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Chapter 33
Peter Hoonakker, Pascale Carayon, Jen Schoepke
There is substantial evidence for a critical shortage of skilled IT workers in the United States (Freeman & Aspray, 1999; ITAA, 2002). From 2000 to... Sample PDF
Discrimination and Hostility Toward Women and Minorities in the IT Work Force
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Chapter 34
Michael J. Gallivan
Over the past decade, the IS literature has been transformed from one that has virtually ignored gender issues to one in which gender frequently... Sample PDF
Diversity in Studying Gender and IT
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Chapter 35
Catherine J. Weinberger
This short article documents that women with college majors in computer science or engineering earn far more than other female college graduates1.... Sample PDF
Earnings of Women with Computer Sciences or Engineering College Majors
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Chapter 36
Catherine J. Weinberger
As a labor economist, my usual role in a discussion of women in the information technology (IT) workforce would be to establish the prevalence of... Sample PDF
An Economist's Perspective on Women in the IT Workforce
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Chapter 37
Tanja Carstensen, Gabriele Winker
Both Internet studies and women’s and gender studies formulated various hopes and fears for the effects of the Internet on gender relations at an... Sample PDF
E-Empowerment through Strengthening Women's Policy Issues via the Internet
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Chapter 38
Thomas W. Ferratt, Harvey G. Enns, Jayesh Prasad
Information technology has become increasingly pervasive in the products and services of organizations. Similarly, IT has become increasingly... Sample PDF
Employment Arrangements, Need Profiles, and Gender
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Chapter 39
Orit Hazzan, Yael Dubinsky
Gender issues have recently been discussed extensively with respect to the computing fields (Bair & McGrathe-Cohoon, 2005; Camp, 2002; Margolis &... Sample PDF
Empower Gender Diversity with Agile Software Development
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Chapter 40
Chong Sheau Ching
A number of factors explain why homemakers would want to transform themselves into home workers. Among these are the desire to rebuild confidence in... Sample PDF
Empowering Homemakers to Become E-Homepreneurs
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Chapter 41
Sonia N. Jorge
The concept of community access to information and communication technologies (ICT) has gained widespread attention as a strategically vital... Sample PDF
Engendering Universal Access to ICT in Rural Areas
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Chapter 42
Donald D. Davis, Debra A. Major, Janis V. Sanchez-Hucles, Sandra J. DeLoatch, Katherine A. Selgrade, Shannon K. Meert, Nikki L. Jackson, Heather J. Downey, Katherine M. Fodchuk
We describe an intervention that uses computer science (CS) faculty and students to create an inclusive learning environment. Our intervention model... Sample PDF
Enhancing Inclusion in Computer Science Education
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Chapter 43
Eileen M. Trauth, Jeria L. Quesenberry, Benjamin Yeo
The rise of the network society involves a transformation of employment, in which power relations shift with the flow of capital, leading to... Sample PDF
Environmental Context and Women in the IT Workforce
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Chapter 44
Monica Adya, Kate M. Kaiser
Many western nations have experienced declining numbers of women in the information technology (IT) workforce (Trauth, Nielsen, & von Hellens... Sample PDF
Factors Influencing Girls' Choice of Information Technology Careers
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Chapter 45
Claire R. McInerney
Because of the ubiquitous nature of information technology, there is a continuous need for IT professionals. There has been a steady growth in the... Sample PDF
Factors that Influence Women and Men to Enroll in IT Majors
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Chapter 46
J. McGrath Cohoon, Holly Lord
The success of efforts to attract and retain more women in computing is influenced by many factors that are beyond the control of academic... Sample PDF
A Faculty Role in Women's Participating in Computing
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Chapter 47
Indira R. Guzman, Jeffrey M. Stanton, Debra Eischen
In the organizational sciences literature, one of the important social forces that affect the productivity, adjustment, attitudes, and retention of... Sample PDF
Female Perceptions of the Information Technology Culture
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Chapter 48
Orit Hazzan, Ayellet Tal, Idit Deidar
Recent studies have focused on gender issues and women’s underrepresentation in fields such as computer science, software engineering (Camp, 1997... Sample PDF
Female Pupils' Perception of Electrical Engineering
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Chapter 49
Jeria L. Quesenberry
The historical gender stratification in technical disciplines has been an area of study for many years and researchers have concluded that women are... Sample PDF
Female Retention in Post-Secondary IT Education
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Chapter 50
Sheila French, Diane Saxon
This article reports the findings of a funded research project carried out in two further education (FE) colleges in the North West of England. The... Sample PDF
Females on Technology Courses in UK Colleges
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Chapter 51
Gillian M. Marcelle
There is little shared understanding of the term “digital divide,” but this has not prevented the international community from investing a great... Sample PDF
Femenist Agenda for Reducing th Gender Digital Divide
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Chapter 52
Clancy Ratcliff
Feminist standpoint theory is an epistemological view set forth in the late 1970s and early 1980s described as “an engaged vision of the world... Sample PDF
Femenist Standpoint Theory
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Chapter 53
Mark Wardell, Steve Sawyer, Jessica Mitory, Sara Reagor
The opportunities in a variety of information technology (IT) occupations, such as software engineer, systems analyst and consultant, combined with... Sample PDF
Five Perspectives on Women and Men in the IT Workforce
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Chapter 54
Donna M. Grant, Linda V. Knight, Theresa A. Steinbach
This article describes a pilot program that uses a holistic approach to address the multitude of barriers girls face when considering a career in... Sample PDF
Fostering Technology Interest Among High School Girls
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Chapter 55
Ita Richardson
In the mid-1990s, I was one of a number of women who recognised the importance of having an on-campus child-care facility for staff and students at... Sample PDF
Funding Women in Science, Engineering, and Technology in Ireland
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Chapter 56
Gender and Chat Forums  (pages 361-364)
Janet Armentor-Cota
Within the last decade, the Internet has become one of the fastest growing technologies. According to research conducted by the Pew Internet and... Sample PDF
Gender and Chat Forums
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Chapter 57
Ruth Woodfield
In the late 1970s, women’s progress and participation in the more traditional scientific and technical fields, such as physics and engineering, was... Sample PDF
Gender and Computing at University in the UK
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Chapter 58
Karinda Rankin Barrett
Researchers interested in the role gender plays in the educational environment have investigated differences in the teaching styles of men and women... Sample PDF
Gender and Differences in Online Teaching Styles
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Chapter 59
Yong-Kwan Lim, John Lim
The evolution of computer-mediated communication (CMC) technologies has brought about changes in the landscape of education. This availability of... Sample PDF
Gender and Discourse Styles in CMC Learning Groups
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Chapter 60
Sigrid Schmitz, Ruth Mebmer, Britta Schinzel
Multimediality, interactivity, and inter-connection as well as independence of place and time are potentials of e-learning and can bring about an... Sample PDF
Gender and Diversity in E-Learning
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Chapter 61
Chetan Sharma, Y. R. Maindiratta
Seelampur, situated in the northeastern part of Delhi, the capital city of India, is characterized by low-income groups, high population density and... Sample PDF
Gender and Education in Oral Traditions, Culture, and ICTs
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Chapter 62
Laura Beckwith, Margaret Burnett, Shraddha Sorte
Although gender differences in a technological world are receiving significant research attention, much of the research and practice has aimed at... Sample PDF
Gender and End-User Computing
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Chapter 63
Emma von Essen
Information and communication technology is used today as a tool for reducing all kinds of poverty, promoting good governance, and facilitating... Sample PDF
Gender and E-Service in CEE and the CIS
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Chapter 64
Malathi Subramanian, Anupama Saxena
The development and use of information and communication technologies have stimulated huge changes in the life of people globally, leading to a... Sample PDF
Gender and ICT Policies and Programmes in an Indian State
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Chapter 65
Kutoma Jacqueline Wakunuma
This article looks at gender equality combined with social and economic empowerment within the context of information communication technologies... Sample PDF
Gender and ICTs in Zamibia
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Chapter 66
Lutfor Rahman, Nusrat Rahman
Information technology (IT) is transforming our personal, social, cultural, economic and political lives. But women in developing countries do not... Sample PDF
Gender and Information Technology in Rural Bangladesh
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Chapter 67
Esther Ruiz Ben
New information and communication technologies are radically transforming the way that information and knowledge are disseminated and shared around... Sample PDF
Gender and IT in the Concept of Sustainability
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Chapter 68
Mari W. Buche
Our daily work is intrinsically tied to our personal image (Alvesson, 2001; Dahlberg, 2004; Gini, 1998). This is particularly true for Americans... Sample PDF
Gender and IT Professional Work Identity
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Chapter 69
Wole Michael Olatokun
Information technology (IT) has become a potent force in transforming social, economic and political life globally (Hafkin & Taggart, 2001). Without... Sample PDF
Gender and National IT Policy in Nigeria
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Chapter 70
Esther Ruiz Ben
From a historical point of view, IT professions have their origin in increasing computerisation, especially in the insurance and banking businesses.... Sample PDF
Gender and Professionalism in IT Fields
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Chapter 71
Edeltraud Hanappi-Egger
The history of software engineering is not very long, but rather intensive. In the beginning of the 40s, programming was seen mainly as manual... Sample PDF
Gender and Software Engineering
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Chapter 72
Donald D. Davis, Katherine A. Selgrade, Debra A. Major
Information technology (IT) work is often distributed geographically through practices such as teleworking. Telework lends itself well to IT workers... Sample PDF
Gender and Telework in Information Technology
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Chapter 73
Lorraine Staehr, Graeme Byrne, Elisha Bell
From its very beginnings in the post second world war years the information technology (IT) industry in Australia has exhibited gender stereotyping... Sample PDF
Gender and Australian IT Industry
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Chapter 74
Susan C. Herring, Christine Ogan, Manju Ahuja, Jean C. Robinson
The “shrinking pipeline” of women who ascend through the ranks in computer science education programs and careers is by now a familiar problem.... Sample PDF
Gender and the Culture of Computing in Applied IT Education
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Chapter 75
Tracy L.M. Kennedy
Internet research has reached a point where a detailed analysis of household Internet use is necessary. Given that the household is a contested... Sample PDF
Gender and the Household Internet
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Chapter 76
Cynthia Tysick, Cindy Ehlers
Civilization has seen an explosion of information technologies over the last one hundred years. The telephone, radio, television, and Internet have... Sample PDF
Gender and the Internet User
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Chapter 77
Dale Mackrell
This article provides an overview of an ongoing study that explores farm management practices by Australian women cotton growers using farm... Sample PDF
Gender and the Use of DSS in the Australian Cotton Industry
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Chapter 78
Iwona Miliszewska
The participation of women in science and, more recently, in information technology (IT) has engaged researchers for more than 20 years. Despite... Sample PDF
Gender Bias in Computer Courses in Australia
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Chapter 79
Martha M. Bleeker
Adolescents are the fastest growing segment of computer and Internet users, reporting heavier use than their parents (Lenhart, Madden & Hitlin... Sample PDF
Gender Differences in Adolescents' Attitudes about IT Careers
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Chapter 80
Kai Zheng, Rema Padman, Michael P. Johnson, Herbert S. Diamond
Information technology (IT) adoption and diffusion is a central concern of information systems research and practice. The most widely-accepted... Sample PDF
Gender Differences in Adoption and Use of a Healthcare IT Application
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Chapter 81
Christian Korunka, Peter Hoonakker, Pascale Carayon
Despite the gains women have made in the last three decades, a large body of research has recently emerged suggesting that major economic changes... Sample PDF
Gender Differences in an Austrian IT Manufacturing Plant
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Chapter 82
Mari W. Buche
There is an alarming trend in the information technology (IT) career field: fewer women than in the past are entering the IT educational pipeline... Sample PDF
Gender Differences in Defining Technology
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Chapter 83
Pascale Carayon, Peter Hoonakker, Jen Schoepke
Historically, women have had lower levels of educational attainment (Freeman, 2004; NCES, 1999), which in turn could negatively affect their... Sample PDF
Gender Differences in Education and Training in the IT Workforce
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Chapter 84
Leone E. Woodcock, San Murugesan
Greater emphasis is now placed on ethics in information technology (IT) which covers a broad range of issues such as privacy, honesty... Sample PDF
Gender Differences in Ethics Perceptions in Information Technology
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Chapter 85
Will Wai-Kit Ma, Allan Hoi-Kau Yuen
Gender differences in computer use has been always a topic of research interest. The understanding of the patterns among gender, including beliefs... Sample PDF
Gender Differences in Information Technology Acceptance
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Chapter 86
Kai Zheng, Akhilesh Bajaj, Beth Osborne Daponte, John B. Engberg
How people use the Internet is an intriguing question to researchers, computer educators, Internet content providers (ICPs), and marketing... Sample PDF
Gender Differences in Internet Usage and Task Preferences
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Chapter 87
Hiroshi Ono, Madeline Zavodny
As information technology (IT) has become more common in everyday use, so too have concerns about the digital divide—unequal access to and use of IT... Sample PDF
Gender Differences in IT Use in the U.S. and Japan
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Chapter 88
Raquel Benbunan-Fich, J. B. Arbaugh
The effects of gender on learning outcomes of online courses depend upon general attitudes toward computers and computer usage, and particular... Sample PDF
Gender Differences in Online Courses
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Chapter 89
Sharon McDonald, Lynne Humphries
Recent developments in visualization techniques coupled with the widespread use of complex graphical interfaces, frequently designed to meet the... Sample PDF
Gender Differences in the Navigation of Electronic Worlds
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Chapter 90
Rodolfo Villarroel, Eduardo Fernández-Medina, Juan Trujillo, Mario Piattini
Organizations depend increasingly on information systems, which rely upon databases and data warehouses (DWs), which need increasingly more quality... Sample PDF
Designing Secure Data Warehouses
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Chapter 91
Rosalie J. Ocker
While traditional face-to-face (FtF) forms of interaction have proven disadvantageous to females in mixed-sex settings, computer-mediated... Sample PDF
Gender Equalization in Computer-Mediated Communication
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Chapter 92
J. Ann Dumas
Gender equality and information and communication technology are important in the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in policy... Sample PDF
Gender ICT and Millennium Development Goals
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Chapter 93
Linda Stepulevage
This article draws on interviews and case study research on gender-IT relations to examine the relationship between gender identity and IT... Sample PDF
Gender Identity and Systems Development
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Chapter 94
Wendy R. Caroll, Albert J. Mills
The decreasing number of women in information technology (IT) programs and careers has received increasing attention over the last decade (Arnold &... Sample PDF
Gender Identity, the Culture of Organizations, and Women's IT Careers
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Chapter 95
Colette Wanless-Sobel
Computer science (CS) is defined in wikipedia as a branch of human knowledge “relating to computation, ranging from abstract analysis of algorithms... Sample PDF
Gender in Computer Science
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Chapter 96
Colette Wanless-Sobel
Distance education is defined by six pedagogical elements: (1) physical separation of teacher and learner; (2) regulatory function or influence of... Sample PDF
Gender in Distance Education Technology
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Chapter 97
Hilde Corneliussen
“From the very birth of computing machines, women have made substantial contributions,” according to Denise Gürer (2002). Augusta Ada Byron Lovelace... Sample PDF
Gender in Norwegian Computer History
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Chapter 98
Wendy Faulkner, Merete Lie
Strategies of Inclusion Gender and the Information Society (SIGIS) was a European study exploring initiatives to include more women in the... Sample PDF
Gender Inclusion in the Information Society
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Chapter 99
Sushil K. Sharma
Internet, wireless, mobile, multi-media (voice, video, 3D), broadband, and other information and communication technologies (ICTs) are rapidly... Sample PDF
Gender Inequalities for Use and Access of ICTs in Developing Countries
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Chapter 100
Jessica Leong
We become just by performing just actions. —Aristotle, Nichomachean Ethics, 4th century, B.C. (Miner & Rawson, 2000) From the opening statement, it... Sample PDF
Gender Influences on Ethical Considerations in the IT Environment
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Chapter 101
Christina Hanganu-Bresch
This article aims to indicate a working agenda of Eastern European gender issues and to generate critical reflection and further research questions.... Sample PDF
Gender Issues in Eastern Europe
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Chapter 102
Manuel J. Sánchez-Franco, Francisco José Martinez-Lopez
In principle, males and females should be able to interact in a more gender-equitable environment. However, evidence has proved that behavioural... Sample PDF
Gender Motives for Web Acceptance and Use
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Chapter 103
Chetan Sharma, Divya Jain
In India, low literacy rates, traditional gender roles, lack of marketable skills and lower educational levels make it difficult for women to find... Sample PDF
Gender Recruitment Issues in the IT Sector
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Chapter 104
Els Rommes
To what extent and in what ways do companies take gender into account in their design decisions? In the past, commerce has been criticized for... Sample PDF
Gender Senititve Design Practices
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Chapter 105
Anna Escofet Roig, Ma José Rubio Hurtado
The scope of this article is to analyze educational multimedia games from a gender perspective. Our society is changing, moving toward information... Sample PDF
Gender, Education, and Video Games
$37.50
Chapter 106
Joey J. Lee, D. Benjamin Hellar, Christopher M. Hoadley
Many IT researchers have noted the disturbing trend of an incredible shrinking pipeline; this pipeline represents the number of women who are... Sample PDF
Gender, Gaming, and IT Careers
$37.50
Chapter 107
Alan Durndell, Jane Miller
This article aims to examine the development of aspects of research on gender and IT by means of considering the mainly psychological research... Sample PDF
Gender, IT, and Educational Choice in East and West Europe
$37.50
Chapter 108
Anita Greenhill
The individual sense of gendered identity and location are embedded within information technology (IT) usage (Meyrowitz, 1985). Exploring gender in... Sample PDF
Gender, Place and Information Technology
$37.50
Chapter 109
Myungsook Klassen, Russell Stockard Jr.
The issue of the underrepresentation of women in the information technology (IT) workforce has been the subject of a number of studies, and the... Sample PDF
Gender, Race, Social Class, and Information Technology
$37.50
Chapter 110
Konrad Morgan, Madeleine Morgan
During the past 30 years of investigation into the ratios of males and females using technology (Harrison, Rainer, & Hochwarter, 1997), there have... Sample PDF
Gender-Biased Attitudes Toward Technology
$37.50
Chapter 111
Sandra Katz
As Camp showed in her widely cited papers on the “incredible shrinking pipeline” (Camp, 1997; Camp, Miller, & Davies, 2000), women have continuously... Sample PDF
Gendered Attrition at the Undergraduate Level
$37.50
Chapter 112
Girls and Computing  (pages 721-726)
Helen Jøsok Gansmo
Much research conducted between 1977 and 1990 document the existence of a technological gender gap (Canada & Brusca, 1991) which has been studied... Sample PDF
Girls and Computing
$37.50
Chapter 113
Jill Denner, Steve Bean
One way to increase women’s participation in technology is to create more female independent problem solvers on the computer, or what Sherry Turkle... Sample PDF
Girls, Games, and Intrepid Exploration on the Computer
$37.50
Chapter 114
The Glass Ceiling in IT  (pages 733-738)
Amanda Haynes
The term “glass ceiling,” first coined in 1986, is a metaphor for “those artificial barriers based on attitudinal or organizational bias that... Sample PDF
The Glass Ceiling in IT
$37.50
Chapter 115
Monica Adya
Education of women severely lags behind that of men in many developing nations. Fewer girls go to school, tend to drop out earlier than boys, do not... Sample PDF
Government and Corporate Initiatives for Indian Women in IT
$37.50
Chapter 116
Lynette Kvasny, Jennifer Warren
In this article, we make a case for research which examines the cultural inclusiveness and salience of health portals. We make our case from the... Sample PDF
Health Portals and Menu-Driven Identities
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Chapter 117
Annemieke Craig
Women’s participation in the Australian workforce has been increasing since the mid-1950s. In 1954, women made up 23% of the total labour force... Sample PDF
Historical Perspective of Australian Women in Computing
$37.50
Chapter 118
Jennifer Brayton
While women have historically engaged with technological practices and processes as designers, producers, users and consumers, technology itself has... Sample PDF
History of Feminist Approaches to Technology Studies
$37.50
Chapter 119
Chong Sheau Ching, Usha Krishnan
eHomemakers (http://www.ehomemakers.net), also known as Mothers for Mothers when it was first formed in 1998 in Malaysia, is a network of mothers... Sample PDF
How Gender Dynamics Affect Teleworkers' Performance in Malaysia
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Chapter 120
Ahmed El Gody
Information communication technologies (ICT) have become an effective force for accelerating political, economic, and social development, decreasing... Sample PDF
ICT and Gender Inequality in the Middle East
$37.50
Chapter 121
Iiris Aaltio, Pia Heilmann
The ICT sector is a newcomer in the Finnish economy. The pace of growth in the Finnish electronics industry was extraordinary over the 1990s. It led... Sample PDF
ICT Sector Characterstics in Finland
$37.50
Chapter 122
Vashti Galpin
Given the circumstances of women’s lives in sub-Saharan Africa, it may appear that information and communication technologies (ICTs) are only for... Sample PDF
ICT Usage in Sub-Saharan Africa
$37.50
Chapter 123
Shoba Arun, Richard Heeks, Sharon Morgan
The role of new technologies, particularly information and communications technology (ICTs) in the global society is central to both contemporary... Sample PDF
ICTs for Economic Empowerment in South India
$37.50
Chapter 124
John Paynter
The excitement of information technology is not only within the discipline itself. Advances in computers have led to leaps in almost every academic... Sample PDF
The Impact of Gender and Ethnicity on Participation in IT
$37.50
Chapter 125
Avri Doria, Maria Uden
From a distance, the Sámi Network Connectivity initiative (SNC) does not necessarily appear as anything but another technical research project with... Sample PDF
Indigenous Women in Scandinavia and a Potential Role for ICT
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Chapter 126
Kathryn J. Maser
This article highlights findings from an empirical study that explores the nature of female underrepresentation in information technology.... Sample PDF
The Influences and Responses of Women in IT Education
$37.50
Chapter 127
Mary Malliaris, Linda Salchenberger
While the issue of attracting women to information technology professions has been studied extensively since the 1970s, the gender gap in IT... Sample PDF
Institutional Characteristics and Gender Choice in IT
$37.50
Chapter 128
Linda Doyle, Maryann Valiulis
The interdisciplinary field of art and technology is now well established in artistic and academic communities (Wilson, 2001). However, this article... Sample PDF
The Intersection of Gender, Information Technology, and Art
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Chapter 129
Michaele D. Laws, Kellie Price
The difficulties in recruiting females into information technology and computer science (CS) have been well documented. Engineering disciplines have... Sample PDF
Introducing Young Females to Information Technology
$37.50
Chapter 130
Marie Griffiths, Karenza Moore
This article explores several issues raised by the European Social Fund (ESF) Women in IT (WINIT) project (February 2004 to February 2006) which... Sample PDF
Issues Raised by the Women in IT (WINIT) Project in England
$37.50
Chapter 131
Anil Shaligram
At “One Village One Computer Campaign” (1V1C) in India we are resolved to tackle the gender question using information technology. The strategic... Sample PDF
IT for Emancipation of Women in India
$37.50
Chapter 132
Juliet Webster
Employment in IT professions has increased greatly in recent years. Aside from the crisis of the dot.com crash in 2001, there has been significant... Sample PDF
IT Work in European Organizations
$37.50
Chapter 133
Joshua L. Rosenbloom, Ronald A. Ash, LeAnne Coder, Brandon Dupont
Women are under represented in the information technology (IT) workforce. In the United States, although women make up about 45% of the overall... Sample PDF
IT Workforce Composition and Characteristics
$37.50
Chapter 134
Debra A. Major, Donald D. Davis, Janis V. Sanchez-Hucles, Lisa M. Germano, Joan Mann
Our program of research is rooted in organizational psychology and employs a climate perspective to understand women’s experiences in the... Sample PDF
IT Workplace Climate for Opportunity and Inclusion
$37.50
Chapter 135
Shari Lawrence Pfleeger, Norma T. Mertz
Although it is a relatively young discipline, information technology has a lack of gender diversity that is similar to many older sciences. For... Sample PDF
Making Executive Mentoring Work in IT
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Chapter 136
Andrea H. Tapia
What is the responsibility of the information technology (IT) industry in addressing gender issues? Exploring recruitment and retention issues that... Sample PDF
Making of a Homogeneous IT Work Environment
$37.50
Chapter 137
Iiris Aaltio
Careers are organizational and institutional, and they have know-how-based contexts. Managerial careers from a gender perspective, gendered “blind... Sample PDF
Managerial Carers, Gender, and Information Technology Field
$37.50
Chapter 138
Matrix  (pages 882-884)
Irina Aristarkhova
1. Matrix = Womb. 2. The Matrix is everywhere, it’s all around us, here, even in this room. You can see it out your window, or on your television.... Sample PDF
Matrix
$37.50
Chapter 139
Theresa McLennan
For a number of years there has been concern, particularly in the western world, about the low female participation and retention rates in computer... Sample PDF
Maturity Rather than Gender is Important for Study Success
$37.50
Chapter 140
Jenine Beekhuyzen, Kaylene Clayton, Liisa von Hellens
In Australia, the participation rate for females in information and communication technology (ICT) courses in secondary, vocational. and higher... Sample PDF
Mentoring Australian Girls in ICTs
$37.50
Chapter 141
Elena Gapova
The purpose of this article is to analyze “after the shift,” which occurred in the second half of the 20th century, from a goods-producing society... Sample PDF
Migration of IT Specialists and Gender
$37.50
Chapter 142
Roli Varma, Marcella LaFever
The problem of disproportional representation of women in the computer science (CS) field in post-secondary education has become a major concern... Sample PDF
Motivating Women to Computer Science Education
$37.50
Chapter 143
Antonio M. Lopez Jr.
Many phenomena of interest in education research are results of voluntary human action: whether a first-year college student elects to pursue a... Sample PDF
Multi-Disciplinary, Scientific, Gender Research
$37.50
Chapter 144
Roli Varma, Vanessa Galindo-Sanchez
In the 1990s, a number of efforts had been made to increase the representation of women in computer science (CS) and computer engineering (CE)... Sample PDF
Native American Women in Computing
$37.50
Chapter 145
Hilde Corneliussen
The number of women within computer sciences is low in Norway, as in other Western countries (Camp & Gürer, 2002). Research projects have documented... Sample PDF
Negotiating a Hegemonic Discourse of Computing
$37.50
Chapter 146
Jonathan Marshall
The study of gendered interaction online grows out of studies of gendered interaction off-line and will probably be found to be a cultural variable... Sample PDF
Online Life and Gender Dynamics
$37.50
Chapter 147
Jonathan Marshall
Gender is not always immediately obvious online and this has excited interest from early on (e.g., Bruckman, 1993; Curtis, 1997). Sometimes, people... Sample PDF
Online Life and Gender Vagueness and Impersonation
$37.50
Chapter 148
Jonathan Marshall
Netsex, or cybersex, may be thought of as the mutual textual simulation, or narration, of sexual activity between people online. Branwyn (1993, p.... Sample PDF
Online Life and Netsex or Cybersex
$37.50
Chapter 149
Jonathan Marshall
Bodies are often claimed to be irrelevant to online activity. Online space, or activity, is frequently described as if disembodied, and often this... Sample PDF
Online Life and Online Bodies
$37.50
Chapter 150
Elena Gapova
The purpose of this article is to analyze the outsourcing of information technology (IT) jobs to a specific world region as a gendered phenomenon.... Sample PDF
Outsourcing to the Post-Soviet Region and Gender
$37.50
Chapter 151
Linda L. Werner, Brian Hanks, Charlie McDowell
Studies of pair programming both in industry and academic settings have found improvements in program quality, test scores, confidence, enjoyment... Sample PDF
Pair Programming and Gender
$37.50
Chapter 152
Peggy S. Meszaros, Anne Laughlin, Elizabeth G. Creamer, Carol J. Burger, Soyoung Lee
Although adolescents become progressively independent from their parents in the high-school years, they continue to depend heavily on parents in the... Sample PDF
Parental Suport for Female IT Career Interest and Choice
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Chapter 153
Margit Pohl, Monika Lanzenberger
The situation of women in computer science education has been a major topic of feminist researchers. It has received widespread attention in many... Sample PDF
Participation of Female Computer Science Students in Austria
$37.50
Chapter 154
Tiffany Barnes, Sarah Berenson, Mladen Vouk
Our nation’s continued global competitiveness is widely believed to depend upon the United States maintaining its leadership in the development and... Sample PDF
Participation of Women in Information Technology
$37.50
Chapter 155
Ronald A. Ash, Joshua L. Rosenbloom, LeAnne Coder, Brandon Dupont
Women are under represented in the information technology (IT) workforce relative to the overall labor force, comprising about 35% of the IT... Sample PDF
Personality Characteristics of Established IT Professionals I: Big Five Personality Characteristics
$37.50
Chapter 156
Ronald A. Ash, Joshua L. Rosenbloom, LeAnne Coder, Brandon Dupont
Women are underrepresented in the information technology (IT) workforce relative to the overall labor force, comprising about 35% of the IT... Sample PDF
Personality Characteristics of Established IT Professionals II: Occupational Personality Charateristics
$37.50
Chapter 157
Susan E. George
There are many disciplines and professions where women are not well represented, are paid less than male counterparts, and rise less quickly to... Sample PDF
A Perspective of Equality and Role for Women in IT
$37.50
Chapter 158
The Pipeline and Beyond  (pages 1005-1011)
Martha Myers, Janette Moody, Catherine Beise, Amy Woszczynski
Women have been involved with IT since the 19th century, when Ada the countess of Lovelace was the first programmer for Charles Babbage’s analytical... Sample PDF
The Pipeline and Beyond
$37.50
Chapter 159
Postcolonial ICT Challenges  (pages 1012-1017)
Birgitta Rydhagen, Lena Trojer
This article has a particular interest in the introduction of ICT in the postcolonial parts of the world. The fundamental arguments for investing in... Sample PDF
Postcolonial ICT Challenges
$37.50
Chapter 160
Postmodern Femenism  (pages 1018-1022)
Clancy Ratliff
Since the 1970s, researchers have been using gender as an analytic category to study information technology (IT). In the decades since then, several... Sample PDF
Postmodern Femenism
$37.50
Chapter 161
Elizabeth G. Creamer, Soyoung Lee, Peggy S. Meszaros, Carol J. Burger, Anne Laughlin
Research has supported the need to develop separate models for predicting men’s and women’s career interests. Women’s career interests, particularly... Sample PDF
Predicting Women's Interest and Choice of an IT Career
$37.50
Chapter 162
Janice A. Grackin
The most recent U.S. national statistics available indicate that among those earning degrees in engineering in 2000-2001, women made up only 18% of... Sample PDF
Psychological Framework for IT Education
$37.50
Chapter 163
Chris Mathieu
This article discusses the causes and implications of an empirically observed tendency to channel a disproportionate number of female computer... Sample PDF
Pushing and Pulling Women into Technology-Plus Jobs
$37.50
Chapter 164
Cecile K.M. Crutzen, Erna Kotkamp
Questioning gender can lead to a reformulating research into: “Why did the hard core of methods, theories and practices of the informatics... Sample PDF
Questioning Gender through Deconstruction and Doubt
$37.50
Chapter 165
Cecile K.M. Crutzen, Erna Kotkamp
Using the discourse of Gender Studies (Harding, 1986), proves to be a fruitful strategy to question methods, theories and practices of the... Sample PDF
Questioning Gender through Transformative Critical Rooms
$37.50
Chapter 166
Ron Eglash
In theer study of equity issues in information technology (IT), researchers concerned with workforce diversity often utilize the metaphor of a... Sample PDF
Race and Gender in Culturally Situated Design Tools
$37.50
Chapter 167
Race and the IT Workforce  (pages 1062-1067)
Elaine K. Yakura
As the existence of the present volume attests, gender is crucial in understanding the IT workforce. To stop there, however, would be to miss many... Sample PDF
Race and the IT Workforce
$37.50
Chapter 168
Peter Hoonakker, Pascale Carayon, Jen Schoepke
Turnover has been a major issue among information technology (IT) personnel since the very early days of computing as well as nowadays (Moore, 2000;... Sample PDF
Reasons for Women to Leave the IT Workforce
$37.50
Chapter 169
Valerie Pegher, Jeria L. Quesenberry, Eileen M. Trauth
There are many resources available for young college graduates entering the workforce. Colleges and universities have entire departments and... Sample PDF
A Reflexative Analysis of Questions for Women Entering the IT Workforce
$37.50
Chapter 170
Tona Henderson
While the experiences of women in computer science (CS) are well documented (Cohoon, 2001, 2002; Computing Research Association, 2002; Margolis &... Sample PDF
Retaining Women in Undergraduate Information Technology Programs
$37.50
Chapter 171
Rebecca L. Crane, Liane Pedersen-Gallegos, Sandra Laursen, Elaine Seymour, Richard Donohue
In her book Why So Slow?: The Advancement of Women, Virginia Valian describes a schema as “a set of implicit, or nonconscious, hypotheses about …... Sample PDF
Schema Disjunction Among Computer Science Students
$37.50
Chapter 172
Larisa Eidelman, Orit Hazzan
Worldwide surveys indicate that the number of women studying undergraduate-level computer science (CS) has been constantly decreasing in the last 20... Sample PDF
The Shrinking Pipeline in Israeli High Schools
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Chapter 173
Maria Elisa R. Jacob
Women technologists practice careers in various fields of information technology. They traditionally are educated and trained to acquire primarily... Sample PDF
Skills of Women Technologists
$37.50
Chapter 174
Sue Nielsen, Liisa von Hellens
The declining participation of women in IT education and professional work is now a well-documented research area (Adam, Howcroft, & Richardson... Sample PDF
The Social Construction of Australian Women in IT
$37.50
Chapter 175
Jing Chong, Lynette Kvasny
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) represent a growing and significant health threat to women... Sample PDF
Social Construction of Gender and Sexuality in Online HIV/AIDS Information
$37.50
Chapter 176
Russell Stockard Jr.
An increasingly important area of gender and information technology is that of Internet, computer, and video games. Besides women increasingly... Sample PDF
The Social Impact of Gender and Games
$37.50
Chapter 177
Sonia N. Jorge
Information and communication technologies (ICT) provide a great development opportunity by contributing to information dissemination, providing an... Sample PDF
Strategies of ICT Use for Women's Economic Empowerment
$37.50
Chapter 178
Lecia J. Barker, Elizabeth R. Jessup
A major teaching challenge for higher education faculty is students’ wide differences with respect to experience or knowledge with the subject... Sample PDF
Student and Faculty Choices that Widen the Experience Gap
$37.50
Chapter 179
Debra A. Major, Lisa M. Germano
Several factors may explain the underrepresentation of women in IT. One reason is the portrayal of the IT workplace as hostile, or at least... Sample PDF
Survey Feedback Interventions in IT Workplaces
$37.50
Chapter 180
Eva Turner
Computer ethics as a subject area is finally being debated in wider computer science and information technology academic circles. In most computer... Sample PDF
Teaching Gender Inclusive Computer Ethics
$37.50
Chapter 181
Yuwei Lin
Current debate on women in free/libre open source software (FLOSS) tends to fall into the gender stereotype of men and women when coming across to... Sample PDF
Techno-Femenist View on the Open Source Software Development
$37.50
Chapter 182
Eileen M. Trauth
A fundamental consideration when attempting to understand the complex factors leading to the underrepresentation of women in IT is the choice and... Sample PDF
Theorizing Gender and Information Technology Research
$37.50
Chapter 183
Ben Light
I want to argue that understanding masculinity is an important part of understanding gender and sexuality as it relates to information and... Sample PDF
Theorizing Masclinity in Information Systems Research
$37.50
Chapter 184
Lynette Kvasny, Jing Chong
Historically, information systems (IS) researchers have conducted empirical studies of gender and information technology (IT) in business... Sample PDF
Third World Femenist Perspectives on Information Technology
$37.50
Chapter 185
Heike Jensen
The World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) is a United Nations (UN) conference led by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). It... Sample PDF
UN World Summit on the Information Society
$37.50
Chapter 186
Jeria L. Quesenberry, Eileen M. Trauth
Despite the recent growth in the number of women in the American labor force, women are under represented in the IT workforce. Key among the factors... Sample PDF
Understanding the Mommy Tracks in the IT Workforce
$37.50
Chapter 187
Wendy Cukier
Attention to women’s low participation in information technology is framed in Canada and elsewhere in terms of concern over availability of... Sample PDF
Unintended Consequences of Definitions of IT Professionals
$37.50
Chapter 188
Heike Wiesner
Without a well-thought-out didactic concept, the best surface design isn’t of any help. This article contains results from an empirical study I... Sample PDF
Virtual Learning and Teaching Environments
$37.50
Chapter 189
Tejaswini Herath, S. Bagchi-Sen, H. R. Rao
A tremendous growth in the use of the Internet has been observed in the past two decades. More than 75% of Americans participate in online... Sample PDF
Vulnerability to Internet Crime and Gender Issues
$37.50
Chapter 190
Vinesh Chandra, Darrell Fisher
The past decade has seen significant improvements in the design and development of information and communication technologies (ICT). The Internet... Sample PDF
Web-Based Learning and Its Impacts on Junior Science Classes
$37.50
Chapter 191
Kristine M. Kuhn, K. D Joshi
Articles in the popular IT press that address the underrepresentation of women often claim that women IT professionals differ from their male... Sample PDF
What Women IT Professionals Want from Their Work
$37.50
Chapter 192
Vivian A. Lagesen
The longstanding concern about the absence of women in science and engineering in most Western countries has led to much research (see, e.g.... Sample PDF
The Woman Problem in Computer Science
$37.50
Chapter 193
Gillian. Whitehouse
In spite of predictions that the spread of information technology (IT) would help break down the gender segregation that characterized employment in... Sample PDF
Women and Computing Careers in Australia
$37.50
Chapter 194
Mohamed El Louadi, Andrea Everard
The digital divide manifests itself on the one hand in the lag in Arab world nations vis-à-vis other more developed countries and on the other hand... Sample PDF
Women and ICTs in the Arab World
$37.50
Chapter 195
Ruth Woodfield
Early commentary on the development of the field of Computing and its relationship to women was generally optimistic in tone. Many early software... Sample PDF
Women and Recruitment to the IT Profession in the UK
$37.50
Chapter 196
Allison J. Morgan, Eileen M. Trauth
Currently, the IT industry is experiencing explosive growth. As the need for more skilled IT workers increases, the focus on the diversity of... Sample PDF
Women and Social Capital Networks in the IT Workforce
$37.50
Chapter 197
Angela Tattersall, Claire Keogh, Helen J. Richardson, Alison Adam
The United Kingdom (UK) information technology (IT) industry is highly male dominated, and women are reported to account for an estimated 15% of the... Sample PDF
Women and the IT Workplace in North West England
$37.50
Chapter 198
Joel C. Adams, Shakuntala Baichoo, Vimala Bauer
Studies like Camp (1997), Gurer and Camp (2002), Sigurdardóttir (2000), and Vegso (2005) have documented the declining percentage of women in... Sample PDF
Women Embrace Computing in Mauritius
$37.50
Chapter 199
Tarja Pietilainen, Hanna Lehtimaki, Heidi Keso
The Nordic countries—Finland, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden—offer interesting material to investigate gendering processes. In these societies, gender... Sample PDF
Women Entrepreneurs in Finnish ICT Industry
$37.50
Chapter 200
Eva Turner
While the countries of Western Europe and the USA are mostly in control of the design and construction of computing technology, the numbers of women... Sample PDF
Women in Computing in the Czech Republic
$37.50
Chapter 201
Vashti Galpin
International research has shown that in most countries, there are few women studying towards information technology (IT) careers (Galpin, 2002)... Sample PDF
Women in Technology in Sub-Saharan Africa
$37.50
Chapter 202
Yuwei Lin
Free/libre open source software (FLOSS) has become a prominent phenomenon in the ICT field and the wider public domain for the past years. However... Sample PDF
Women in the Free/Libre Open Source Software Development
$37.50
Chapter 203
Niki Panteli, Despina Cochliou, Evangelia Baralou
IT is a sector that incorporates the newest industries, consisting mainly of young firms and relatively freshly constituted forms of working... Sample PDF
Women Returners in the UK IT Industry
$37.50
Chapter 204
Orit Hazzan, Dalit Levy
This article focuses on female software engineers in the Israeli hi-tech industry. We describe findings of our research that was based on in-depth... Sample PDF
Women, Hi-tech, and the Family-Career Conflict
$37.50
Chapter 205
Paula De Palma
In 1963, Betty Friedan wrote these gloomy words: The problem lay buried, unspoken, for many years in the minds of American women. ... Each suburban... Sample PDF
Women, Mathematics, and Computing
$37.50
Chapter 206
Shirine M. Repucci
The majority of the literature written about the history of the Internet has focused on chronicling only the technical milestones that led to its... Sample PDF
Women's Role in the Development of the Internet
$37.50
Chapter 207
Olukunle Babatunde Daramola, Bright E. Oniovokukor
Despite the rapid and revolutionized development of communication and media around the world in the last few decades, which culminated in the term... Sample PDF
Women's Access to ICT in an Urban Area of Nigeria
$37.50
Chapter 208
WSIS Gender and ICT Policy  (pages 1318-1324)
J. Ann Dumas
The World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) was organized by the United Nations (UN) and the International Telecommunications Union to... Sample PDF
WSIS Gender and ICT Policy
$37.50
Chapter 209
Tiffany Barnes, Sarah Berenson, Mladen A. Vouk
The underrepresentation of women in science, technology, and engineering careers is of growing national concern (Vesgo, 2005; National Academy of... Sample PDF
Young Women and Persistence in Information Technology
$37.50